BACKGROUND: recent observational studies show an increase of more complex and critically ill patients referred to Italian cardiac rehabilitation (CR) departments; the exact mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, however, have not been clearly identified. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical changes that occurred over the last decade in patients hospitalized in CR departments with high admittance rates. METHODS: we have retrospectively evaluated all patients admitted between 2002 and 2009 to our division of CR (n = 3340, 1155 female, mean age 66.4 ± 11 years) after recent cardiac surgery. The study population was divided into two homogeneous groups: the four-year period 2002-2005, group A (n = 1614, 540 female, mean age 66.1 ± 10 years) and the four-year period 2006-2009, group B (n = 1726, 615 female, mean age 67.4 ± 11 years). Data were compared using specific indicators of clinical complexity. RESULTS: patients aged >75 years were more in group B compared to A (26.3 vs 19.8%, p<0.0001), as well as patients with recent complex surgical interventions, such as combined coronary artery bypass grafting and heart valve surgery (16.4 vs 10.2%, p<0.0001). An increased incidence of cardiovascular death (1.4 vs 0.6%, p=0.02), acute coronary syndrome (1.5 vs 0.7%, p=0.02) and persistent atrial fibrillation/flutter (13.5 vs 7.1%, p<0.0001) was observed in group B, as well as an increased prevalence of systolic heart failure (18.3 vs 9.0%, p<0.0001). Similarly, the incidence of acute respiratory failure episodes (1.0 vs 0.4%, p=0.05), the prevalence of patients admitted with a tracheostomy tube (2.6 vs 0.2%, p<0.0001) and the incidence of acute renal failure (1.1 vs 0.5%, p=0.05) were significantly increased in group B. Postoperative infections and surgical wound complications were 4-fold higher in group B (13.9 vs 3.1%, p<0.0001, and 12.8 vs 2.3%, p<0.0001, respectively). Compared to group A, patients of group B showed a significantly lower physical performance, as expressed by the Rivermead motility index (3.8 ± 1.1 vs 5.2 ± 0.8, p<0.001); moreover, the number of subjects able to perform an incremental training program was significantly lower in group B than group A (14.8 vs 60.6%, p<0.0001). Mean hospital stay was longer in group B than group A (25.4 ± 13 vs 22.1 ± 9 days, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: our study, by collecting data from a CR division in northern Italy with high admittance rates, demonstrates a dramatic increase in clinical complexity over the last few years. This points to the need for new expertise and major resources to be allocated to CR departments.

[Major epidemiological changes and clinical variables in patients undergoing a program of heart rehabilitation after cardiac surgery - MEPHISTOPHELES].

FANTONI, CECILIA;
2011-01-01

Abstract

BACKGROUND: recent observational studies show an increase of more complex and critically ill patients referred to Italian cardiac rehabilitation (CR) departments; the exact mechanisms underlying this phenomenon, however, have not been clearly identified. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological and clinical changes that occurred over the last decade in patients hospitalized in CR departments with high admittance rates. METHODS: we have retrospectively evaluated all patients admitted between 2002 and 2009 to our division of CR (n = 3340, 1155 female, mean age 66.4 ± 11 years) after recent cardiac surgery. The study population was divided into two homogeneous groups: the four-year period 2002-2005, group A (n = 1614, 540 female, mean age 66.1 ± 10 years) and the four-year period 2006-2009, group B (n = 1726, 615 female, mean age 67.4 ± 11 years). Data were compared using specific indicators of clinical complexity. RESULTS: patients aged >75 years were more in group B compared to A (26.3 vs 19.8%, p<0.0001), as well as patients with recent complex surgical interventions, such as combined coronary artery bypass grafting and heart valve surgery (16.4 vs 10.2%, p<0.0001). An increased incidence of cardiovascular death (1.4 vs 0.6%, p=0.02), acute coronary syndrome (1.5 vs 0.7%, p=0.02) and persistent atrial fibrillation/flutter (13.5 vs 7.1%, p<0.0001) was observed in group B, as well as an increased prevalence of systolic heart failure (18.3 vs 9.0%, p<0.0001). Similarly, the incidence of acute respiratory failure episodes (1.0 vs 0.4%, p=0.05), the prevalence of patients admitted with a tracheostomy tube (2.6 vs 0.2%, p<0.0001) and the incidence of acute renal failure (1.1 vs 0.5%, p=0.05) were significantly increased in group B. Postoperative infections and surgical wound complications were 4-fold higher in group B (13.9 vs 3.1%, p<0.0001, and 12.8 vs 2.3%, p<0.0001, respectively). Compared to group A, patients of group B showed a significantly lower physical performance, as expressed by the Rivermead motility index (3.8 ± 1.1 vs 5.2 ± 0.8, p<0.001); moreover, the number of subjects able to perform an incremental training program was significantly lower in group B than group A (14.8 vs 60.6%, p<0.0001). Mean hospital stay was longer in group B than group A (25.4 ± 13 vs 22.1 ± 9 days, p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: our study, by collecting data from a CR division in northern Italy with high admittance rates, demonstrates a dramatic increase in clinical complexity over the last few years. This points to the need for new expertise and major resources to be allocated to CR departments.
Baravelli, M; Picozzi, A; Rossi, A; Cattaneo, P; Imperiale, D; Rossi, Mc; Fantoni, Cecilia; Vezzaro, G; Crespi, L; Bosco, M; Borghi, S; Ballotta, A; Menicanti, L; Donatelli, F; Gronda, E; Anzà, C.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/1836922
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