Among the numerous congenital disorders of glycosylation concerning glycoproteins, only a single mutation in ganglioside biosynthesis had been reported until a few years ago: one in the ST3GAL5 gene, encoding GM3 synthase. More recently, additional mutations in the same gene were reported, together with several distinct mutations in the B4GALNT1 gene, encoding GM2/GD2/GA2 synthase. Patients suffering from ST3GAL5 deficiency present a devastating syndrome characterized by early onset and dramatic neurological and cognitive impairment, sometimes associated with dyspigmentation and an increased blood lactate concentration. On the other hand, B4GALNT1 mutations give rise to a form of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), previously referred to as HSP26. It is characterized by the late onset of lower limb weakness and mild to moderate intellectual impairment, which is usually not progressive. In addition to the most typical signs, some patients present ocular and endocrine signs, pes cavus, and psychiatric illness. Since the nineties, mice lacking genes for single glycosyltransferases involved in ganglioside biosynthesis, including ST3GAL5 and B4GALNT1, were created and studied. The resulting phenotypes were frequently mild or very mild, so double knock-out animals were created to effectively study the function of gangliosides. The main clinical and biochemical features of patients suffering from GM3 synthase or GM2/GD2/GA2 synthase deficiency, compared with the phenotypes described in mice that are null for single or multiple glycosyltransferase genes, provide suggestions to improve the recognition of novel mutations and potentially related disorders.

Diseases of ganglioside biosynthesis: An expanding group of congenital disorders of glycosylation

Trinchera, Marco
;
2018

Abstract

Among the numerous congenital disorders of glycosylation concerning glycoproteins, only a single mutation in ganglioside biosynthesis had been reported until a few years ago: one in the ST3GAL5 gene, encoding GM3 synthase. More recently, additional mutations in the same gene were reported, together with several distinct mutations in the B4GALNT1 gene, encoding GM2/GD2/GA2 synthase. Patients suffering from ST3GAL5 deficiency present a devastating syndrome characterized by early onset and dramatic neurological and cognitive impairment, sometimes associated with dyspigmentation and an increased blood lactate concentration. On the other hand, B4GALNT1 mutations give rise to a form of complicated hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP), previously referred to as HSP26. It is characterized by the late onset of lower limb weakness and mild to moderate intellectual impairment, which is usually not progressive. In addition to the most typical signs, some patients present ocular and endocrine signs, pes cavus, and psychiatric illness. Since the nineties, mice lacking genes for single glycosyltransferases involved in ganglioside biosynthesis, including ST3GAL5 and B4GALNT1, were created and studied. The resulting phenotypes were frequently mild or very mild, so double knock-out animals were created to effectively study the function of gangliosides. The main clinical and biochemical features of patients suffering from GM3 synthase or GM2/GD2/GA2 synthase deficiency, compared with the phenotypes described in mice that are null for single or multiple glycosyltransferase genes, provide suggestions to improve the recognition of novel mutations and potentially related disorders.
http://www.elsevier.com/inca/publications/store/6/2/2/9/2/0/index.htt
Ganglioside; Glycosylation disorder; Glycosyltransferase; Mouse model; Rare disease; Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism; Biochemistry; Molecular Biology; Genetics; Endocrinology
Trinchera, Marco; Parini, Rossella; Indellicato, Rossella; Domenighini, Ruben; Dall'Olio, Fabio
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2074843
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