The exposure to metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased with their widespread use in industry, research and medicine. It is well known that NPs may enter cells and that this mechanism is crucial to exert both the therapeutic and toxicity effects. The main cellular entrance route is endocytosis-based, however, recent experimental studies, have reported that NPs can also enter the cell crossing directly the plasma membrane, it is thus important to investigate this alternative internalization mechanism. Size, surface chemistry, solubility and shape play a role in NP ability of entering the cell, but it is still to be elucidated how these properties act on cell membrane. We have demonstrated that a direct permeation of metal oxide NPs through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane can occur, giving direct access to the cytoplasm. In this paper, using the powerful tool of Xenopus laevis oocytes and two electrode Voltage Clamp, we have investigated several parameters that can influence the direct crossing. The most significant of them is the NP hydrodynamic size as clearly shown by the comparison of the behaviour between Co3O4 and NiO NPs. By collecting biophysical membrane parameters in different conditions, we have shown that NPs that are able to cross the membrane share the ability to maintain a hydrodynamic size lower than 200 nm. The presence of this route of entrance must be considered for a better comprehension of the effect at intracellular level considering possible mechanism in order to a safer design of engineered NPs.

The direct permeation of nanoparticles through the plasma membrane transiently modifies its properties

Zanella D.;Bossi E.;Gornati R.;Bernardini G.
2019-01-01

Abstract

The exposure to metal nanoparticles (NPs) has increased with their widespread use in industry, research and medicine. It is well known that NPs may enter cells and that this mechanism is crucial to exert both the therapeutic and toxicity effects. The main cellular entrance route is endocytosis-based, however, recent experimental studies, have reported that NPs can also enter the cell crossing directly the plasma membrane, it is thus important to investigate this alternative internalization mechanism. Size, surface chemistry, solubility and shape play a role in NP ability of entering the cell, but it is still to be elucidated how these properties act on cell membrane. We have demonstrated that a direct permeation of metal oxide NPs through the lipid bilayer of the cell membrane can occur, giving direct access to the cytoplasm. In this paper, using the powerful tool of Xenopus laevis oocytes and two electrode Voltage Clamp, we have investigated several parameters that can influence the direct crossing. The most significant of them is the NP hydrodynamic size as clearly shown by the comparison of the behaviour between Co3O4 and NiO NPs. By collecting biophysical membrane parameters in different conditions, we have shown that NPs that are able to cross the membrane share the ability to maintain a hydrodynamic size lower than 200 nm. The presence of this route of entrance must be considered for a better comprehension of the effect at intracellular level considering possible mechanism in order to a safer design of engineered NPs.
www.elsevier.com/locate/bbamem
Membrane permeation; Membrane resistance; Metal nanoparticles; Voltage-clamp; Xenopus oocyte
Zanella, D.; Bossi, E.; Gornati, R.; Faria, N.; Powell, J.; Bernardini, G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2081248
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