In nature, the D-enantiomers of amino acids (D-AAs) are not used for protein synthesis and during evolution acquired specific and relevant physiological functions in different organisms. This is the reason for the surge in interest and investigations on these “unnatural” molecules observed in recent years. D-AAs are increasingly used as building blocks to produce pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In past years, a number of methods have been devised to produce D-AAs based on enantioselective enzymes. With the aim to increase the D-AA derivatives generated, to improve the intrinsic atomic economy and cost-effectiveness, and to generate processes at low environmental impact, recent studies focused on identification, engineering and application of enzymes in novel biocatalytic processes. The aim of this review is to report the advances in synthesis of D-AAs gathered in the past few years based on five main classes of enzymes. These enzymes have been combined and thus applied to multi-enzymatic processes representing in vitro pathways of alternative/exchangeable enzymes that allow the generation of an artificial metabolism for D-AAs synthetic purposes.

Advances in enzymatic synthesis of D-amino acids

Pollegioni L.;Rosini E.;Molla G.
2020

Abstract

In nature, the D-enantiomers of amino acids (D-AAs) are not used for protein synthesis and during evolution acquired specific and relevant physiological functions in different organisms. This is the reason for the surge in interest and investigations on these “unnatural” molecules observed in recent years. D-AAs are increasingly used as building blocks to produce pharmaceuticals and fine chemicals. In past years, a number of methods have been devised to produce D-AAs based on enantioselective enzymes. With the aim to increase the D-AA derivatives generated, to improve the intrinsic atomic economy and cost-effectiveness, and to generate processes at low environmental impact, recent studies focused on identification, engineering and application of enzymes in novel biocatalytic processes. The aim of this review is to report the advances in synthesis of D-AAs gathered in the past few years based on five main classes of enzymes. These enzymes have been combined and thus applied to multi-enzymatic processes representing in vitro pathways of alternative/exchangeable enzymes that allow the generation of an artificial metabolism for D-AAs synthetic purposes.
Biocatalysis; Cascade reactions; D-amino acids; Protein engineering; Stereoselective reactions
Pollegioni, L.; Rosini, E.; Molla, G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11383/2094190
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