To characterise the mass concentration, size-distribution, and respiratory deposition of selected trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, and Pb) in size-segregated PM2.5, a long-term monitoring campaign was undertaken at an urban background site in Como (Northern Italy). 96-h aerosol samples were collected weekly, from May 2015 to March 2016, using a 13-stage low pressure impactor and analysed via laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Significantly higher levels of trace metals were generally found during the heating season (two to more than four times) compared to the non-heating period at all size ranges, especially for concentrations in PM0.1-1. Distinct distribution profiles characterised the different elements, even though the corresponding heating and non-heating shapes always exhibited similar features, with negligible seasonal shifts in the average mass median aerodynamic diameters. Fe, Ba, and Cu had >70% of their mass in PM1-2.5, whereas Pb, Zn, and Ni showed higher contributions in the accumulation mode (>60%). Finally, broad size-distributions were found for Cr and Mn. The multiple-path particle dosimetry model estimated the overall deposition fractions in human airways varying between 27% (Pb) and 48% (Ba). The greatest deposition variability was always registered in the head region of the respiratory system, with the highest contributions for those metals predominantly accumulated in the PM2.5 coarse modes. In contrast, the deposition in the deepest respiratory tract maintained nearly constant proportions over time, becoming notably important for Pb, Ni, and Zn (∼13%) with respect to their total deposition. The comparison with national limits established for Pb and Ni suggested the absence of significant risks for the local population, as expected, with average concentrations two orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding annual limit and objective value. Similar findings were reported for all the other metals, for which the estimated hazard quotients were always well <1.

Toxic trace metals in size-segregated fine particulate matter: Mass concentration, respiratory deposition, and risk assessment

Sabrina Rovelli;Andrea Cattaneo;Francesca Borghi;Andrea Spinazzè;Marta Keller;Davide Campagnolo;Domenico Cavallo
2020

Abstract

To characterise the mass concentration, size-distribution, and respiratory deposition of selected trace metals (Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ba, and Pb) in size-segregated PM2.5, a long-term monitoring campaign was undertaken at an urban background site in Como (Northern Italy). 96-h aerosol samples were collected weekly, from May 2015 to March 2016, using a 13-stage low pressure impactor and analysed via laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Significantly higher levels of trace metals were generally found during the heating season (two to more than four times) compared to the non-heating period at all size ranges, especially for concentrations in PM0.1-1. Distinct distribution profiles characterised the different elements, even though the corresponding heating and non-heating shapes always exhibited similar features, with negligible seasonal shifts in the average mass median aerodynamic diameters. Fe, Ba, and Cu had >70% of their mass in PM1-2.5, whereas Pb, Zn, and Ni showed higher contributions in the accumulation mode (>60%). Finally, broad size-distributions were found for Cr and Mn. The multiple-path particle dosimetry model estimated the overall deposition fractions in human airways varying between 27% (Pb) and 48% (Ba). The greatest deposition variability was always registered in the head region of the respiratory system, with the highest contributions for those metals predominantly accumulated in the PM2.5 coarse modes. In contrast, the deposition in the deepest respiratory tract maintained nearly constant proportions over time, becoming notably important for Pb, Ni, and Zn (∼13%) with respect to their total deposition. The comparison with national limits established for Pb and Ni suggested the absence of significant risks for the local population, as expected, with average concentrations two orders of magnitude lower than the corresponding annual limit and objective value. Similar findings were reported for all the other metals, for which the estimated hazard quotients were always well <1.
https://www-sciencedirect-com.insubria.idm.oclc.org/science/article/pii/S0269749120325756?via=ihub
Deposition efficiency; Heavy metals; Metal size-distribution; Risk characterisation; Seasonal variability
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11383/2096304
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