Severe acute pancreatitis remains a life-threatening condition, responsible for many disorders of homeostasis and organ dysfunction. By means of a mnemonic 'PANCREAS', eight important steps in the management of severe acute pancreatitis are highlighted. These steps follow the principle of goal-directed therapy and should be borne in mind after diagnosis and during clinical treatment. The first step is perfusion: the goal is to reach a central venous pressure of 12-15mmHg, urinary output 0.5-1ml/kg/hour and inferior vena cava collapse index greater than 48%. Next is analgesia: multimodal, systemic and combined pharmacological agent and epidural block are possibilities. Third is nutrition: precocity, enteral feeding in gastric or post-pyloric position. Parenteral nutrition works best in difficult cases to achieve the individual total caloric value. Fourth is clinical: mild, moderate or severe pancreatitis according to the Atlanta criteria. Radiology is fifth: abdominal computed tomography on the fourth day for prognosis or to modify management. Endoscopy is sixth: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (cholangitis, unpredicted clinical course and ascending jaundice); management of pancreatic fluid collection and 'walled-off necrosis'. Antibiotics come next: infectious complications are common causes of morbidity. The only rational indication for antibiotics is documented pancreatic infection. The last step is surgery: the dogma is represented by the 'three Ds' (delay, drain, debride). The preferred method is a minimally invasive step-up approach, which allows for gradually more invasive procedures when the previous treatment fails.

Severe acute pancreatitis: Eight fundamental steps revised according to the 'PANCREAS' acronym

Di Saverio S.;
2020

Abstract

Severe acute pancreatitis remains a life-threatening condition, responsible for many disorders of homeostasis and organ dysfunction. By means of a mnemonic 'PANCREAS', eight important steps in the management of severe acute pancreatitis are highlighted. These steps follow the principle of goal-directed therapy and should be borne in mind after diagnosis and during clinical treatment. The first step is perfusion: the goal is to reach a central venous pressure of 12-15mmHg, urinary output 0.5-1ml/kg/hour and inferior vena cava collapse index greater than 48%. Next is analgesia: multimodal, systemic and combined pharmacological agent and epidural block are possibilities. Third is nutrition: precocity, enteral feeding in gastric or post-pyloric position. Parenteral nutrition works best in difficult cases to achieve the individual total caloric value. Fourth is clinical: mild, moderate or severe pancreatitis according to the Atlanta criteria. Radiology is fifth: abdominal computed tomography on the fourth day for prognosis or to modify management. Endoscopy is sixth: endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (cholangitis, unpredicted clinical course and ascending jaundice); management of pancreatic fluid collection and 'walled-off necrosis'. Antibiotics come next: infectious complications are common causes of morbidity. The only rational indication for antibiotics is documented pancreatic infection. The last step is surgery: the dogma is represented by the 'three Ds' (delay, drain, debride). The preferred method is a minimally invasive step-up approach, which allows for gradually more invasive procedures when the previous treatment fails.
Classification; Complications; Imaging diagnosis; Necrotising acute pancreatitis; Surgery; Cholangiopancreatography, Endoscopic Retrograde; Enteral Nutrition; Humans; Practice Guidelines as Topic; Prognosis; Tomography, X-Ray Computed; Pancreatitis, Acute Necrotizing
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11383/2100344
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