Despite relevant advances made in therapies for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), they still represent the first cause of death worldwide. Cardiac fibrosis and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling are common end-organ features in diseased hearts, leading to tissue stiffness, impaired myocardial functional, and progression to heart failure. Although fibrosis has been largely recognized to accompany and complicate various CVDs, events and mechanisms driving and governing fibrosis are still not entirely elucidated, and clinical interventions targeting cardiac fibrosis are not yet available. Immune cell types, both from innate and adaptive immunity, are involved not just in the classical response to pathogens, but they take an active part in “sterile” inflammation, in response to ischemia and other forms of injury. In this context, different cell types infiltrate the injured heart and release distinct pro-inflammatory cytokines that initiate the fibrotic response by triggering myofibroblast activation. The complex interplay between immune cells, fibroblasts, and other non-immune/host-derived cells is now considered as the major driving force of cardiac fibrosis. Here, we review and discuss the contribution of inflammatory cells of innate immunity, including neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, eosinophils and mast cells, in modulating the myocardial microenvironment, by orchestrating the fibrogenic process in response to tissue injury. A better understanding of the time frame, sequences of events during immune cells infiltration, and their action in the injured inflammatory heart environment, may provide a rationale to design new and more efficacious therapeutic interventions to reduce cardiac fibrosis.

Innate Immunity Effector Cells as Inflammatory Drivers of Cardiac Fibrosis

Denisa Baci;Annalisa Bosi;Lorenzo Mortara;Antonino Bruno
2020

Abstract

Despite relevant advances made in therapies for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), they still represent the first cause of death worldwide. Cardiac fibrosis and excessive extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling are common end-organ features in diseased hearts, leading to tissue stiffness, impaired myocardial functional, and progression to heart failure. Although fibrosis has been largely recognized to accompany and complicate various CVDs, events and mechanisms driving and governing fibrosis are still not entirely elucidated, and clinical interventions targeting cardiac fibrosis are not yet available. Immune cell types, both from innate and adaptive immunity, are involved not just in the classical response to pathogens, but they take an active part in “sterile” inflammation, in response to ischemia and other forms of injury. In this context, different cell types infiltrate the injured heart and release distinct pro-inflammatory cytokines that initiate the fibrotic response by triggering myofibroblast activation. The complex interplay between immune cells, fibroblasts, and other non-immune/host-derived cells is now considered as the major driving force of cardiac fibrosis. Here, we review and discuss the contribution of inflammatory cells of innate immunity, including neutrophils, macrophages, natural killer cells, eosinophils and mast cells, in modulating the myocardial microenvironment, by orchestrating the fibrogenic process in response to tissue injury. A better understanding of the time frame, sequences of events during immune cells infiltration, and their action in the injured inflammatory heart environment, may provide a rationale to design new and more efficacious therapeutic interventions to reduce cardiac fibrosis.
Cardiac fibrosis; inflammation; neutrophils; macrophages; natural killer cells; eosinophils; mast cells.
Baci, Denisa; Bosi, Annalisa; Parisi, Luca; Buono, Giuseppe; Mortara, Lorenzo; Ambrosio, Giuseppe; Bruno, Antonino
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11383/2100655
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