A complex relationship exists between thyroid and liver in health and disease. Liver plays an essential physiological role in thyroid hormone activation and inactivation, transport, and metabolism. Conversely, thyroid hormones affect activities of hepatocytes and hepatic metabolism. Serum liver enzyme abnormalities observed in hypothyroidism may be related to impaired lipid metabolism, hepatic steatosis or hypothyroidism-induced myopathy. Severe hypothyroidism may have biochemical and clinical features, such as hyperammonemia and ascites, mimicking those of liver failure. Liver function tests are frequently abnormal also in hyperthyroidism, due to oxidative stress, cholestasis, or enhanced osteoblastic activity. Antithyroid drug-associated hepatotoxicity is a rare event, likely related mainly to an idiosyncratic mechanism, ranging from a mild hepatocellular damage to liver failure. Propylthiouracil-induced liver damage is usually more severe than that caused by methimazole. On the other hand, thyroid abnormalities can be found in liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. In particular, autoimmune thyroid diseases are frequently found in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. These patients, especially if thyroid autoimmunity preexists, are at risk of hypothyroidism or, less frequently, thyrotoxicosis, during and after treatment with interpheron-alpha alone or in combination with ribavirin, commonly used before the introduction of new antiviral drugs. The present review summarizes both liver abnormalities related to thyroid disorders and their treatment, and thyroid abnormalities related to liver diseases and their treatment.

The interplay between thyroid and liver: implications for clinical practice

Piantanida E.;Gallo D.;Bartalena L.;Tanda M.
Ultimo
2020-01-01

Abstract

A complex relationship exists between thyroid and liver in health and disease. Liver plays an essential physiological role in thyroid hormone activation and inactivation, transport, and metabolism. Conversely, thyroid hormones affect activities of hepatocytes and hepatic metabolism. Serum liver enzyme abnormalities observed in hypothyroidism may be related to impaired lipid metabolism, hepatic steatosis or hypothyroidism-induced myopathy. Severe hypothyroidism may have biochemical and clinical features, such as hyperammonemia and ascites, mimicking those of liver failure. Liver function tests are frequently abnormal also in hyperthyroidism, due to oxidative stress, cholestasis, or enhanced osteoblastic activity. Antithyroid drug-associated hepatotoxicity is a rare event, likely related mainly to an idiosyncratic mechanism, ranging from a mild hepatocellular damage to liver failure. Propylthiouracil-induced liver damage is usually more severe than that caused by methimazole. On the other hand, thyroid abnormalities can be found in liver diseases, such as chronic hepatitis C, liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and cholangiocarcinoma. In particular, autoimmune thyroid diseases are frequently found in patients with hepatitis C virus infection. These patients, especially if thyroid autoimmunity preexists, are at risk of hypothyroidism or, less frequently, thyrotoxicosis, during and after treatment with interpheron-alpha alone or in combination with ribavirin, commonly used before the introduction of new antiviral drugs. The present review summarizes both liver abnormalities related to thyroid disorders and their treatment, and thyroid abnormalities related to liver diseases and their treatment.
2020
Antithyroid drugs; Chronic hepatitis C; Hyperthyroidism; Hypothyroidism; Thyroid autoimmunity
Piantanida, E.; Ippolito, S.; Gallo, D.; Masiello, E.; Premoli, P.; Cusini, C.; Rosetti, S.; Sabatino, J.; Segato, S.; Trimarchi, F.; Bartalena, L.; Tanda, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2102678
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