Despite much progress in improving graft outcome during cardiac transplantation, chronic allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains an impediment to long-term graft survival. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) emerged as regulators of the immune response. Here, we aimed to examine the miRNA network involved in CAV. miRNA profiling of heart samples obtained from a murine model of CAV and from cardiac-transplanted patients with CAV demonstrated that miR-21 was most significantly expressed and was primarily localized to macrophages. Interestingly, macrophage depletion with clodronate did not significantly prolong allograft survival in mice, while conditional deletion of miR-21 in macrophages or the use of a specific miR-21 antagomir resulted in indefinite cardiac allograft survival and abrogated CAV. The immunophenotype, secretome, ability to phagocytose, migration, and antigen presentation of macrophages were unaffected by miR-21 targeting, while macrophage metabolism was reprogrammed, with a shift toward oxidative phosphorylation in naïve macrophages and with an inhibition of glycolysis in pro-inflammatory macrophages. The aforementioned effects resulted in an increase in M2-like macrophages, which could be reverted by the addition of L-arginine. RNA-seq analysis confirmed alterations in arginase-associated pathways associated with miR-21 antagonism. In conclusion, miR-21 is overexpressed in murine and human CAV, and its targeting delays CAV onset by reprogramming macrophages metabolism.