Synthetic derivatives are currently used instead of pigments in many applicative fields, from food to feed, from pharmaceutical to diagnostic, from agronomy to industry. Progress in organic chemistry allowed to obtain rather cheap compounds covering the whole color spectrum. However, several concerns arise from this chemical approach, as it is mainly based on nonrenewable resources such as fossil oil, and the toxicity or carcinogenic properties of products and/or precursors may be harmful for personnel involved in the productive processes. In this scenario, microorganisms and their pigments represent a colorful world to discover and reconsider. Each living bacterial strain may be a source of secondary metabolites with peculiar functions. The aim of this review is to link the physiological role of bacterial pigments with their potential use in different biotechnological fields. This enormous potential supports the big challenge for the development of strategies useful to identify, produce, and purify the right pigment for the desired application. At the end of this ideal journey through the world of bacterial pigments, the attention will be focused on melanin compounds, whose production relies upon different techniques ranging from natural producers, heterologous hosts, or isolated enzymes. In a green workflow, the microorganisms represent the starting and final point of pigment production.

Bacterial pigments: A colorful palette reservoir for biotechnological applications

Orlandi V. T.
Primo
;
Martegani E.
Secondo
;
Giaroni C.;Baj A.
Penultimo
;
Bolognese F.
Ultimo
2021-01-01

Abstract

Synthetic derivatives are currently used instead of pigments in many applicative fields, from food to feed, from pharmaceutical to diagnostic, from agronomy to industry. Progress in organic chemistry allowed to obtain rather cheap compounds covering the whole color spectrum. However, several concerns arise from this chemical approach, as it is mainly based on nonrenewable resources such as fossil oil, and the toxicity or carcinogenic properties of products and/or precursors may be harmful for personnel involved in the productive processes. In this scenario, microorganisms and their pigments represent a colorful world to discover and reconsider. Each living bacterial strain may be a source of secondary metabolites with peculiar functions. The aim of this review is to link the physiological role of bacterial pigments with their potential use in different biotechnological fields. This enormous potential supports the big challenge for the development of strategies useful to identify, produce, and purify the right pigment for the desired application. At the end of this ideal journey through the world of bacterial pigments, the attention will be focused on melanin compounds, whose production relies upon different techniques ranging from natural producers, heterologous hosts, or isolated enzymes. In a green workflow, the microorganisms represent the starting and final point of pigment production.
bioactive compound; biotechnology; E. coli; enzyme; expression systems; gene expression; melanin; microbial metabolism; pigments
Orlandi, V. T.; Martegani, E.; Giaroni, C.; Baj, A.; Bolognese, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2114404
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