In the central nervous system, the flavoprotein D-amino acid oxidase is responsible for catabolizing D-serine, the main endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Dysregulation of D-serine brain levels in humans has been associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. This D-amino acid is synthesized by the enzyme serine racemase, starting from the corresponding L-enantiomer, and degraded by both serine racemase (via an elimination reaction) and the flavoenzyme D-amino acid oxidase. To shed light on the role of human D-amino acid oxidase (hDAAO) in D-serine metabolism, the structural/functional relationships of this enzyme have been investigated in depth and several strategies aimed at controlling the enzymatic activity have been identified. Here, we focused on the effect of post-translational modifications: by using a combination of structural analyses, biochemical methods, and cellular studies, we investigated whether hDAAO is subjected to nitrosylation, sulfhydration, and phosphorylation. hDAAO is S-nitrosylated and this negatively affects its activity. In contrast, the hydrogen sulfide donor NaHS seems to alter the enzyme conformation, stabilizing a species with higher affinity for the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor and thus positively affecting enzymatic activity. Moreover, hDAAO is phosphorylated in cerebellum; however, the protein kinase involved is still unknown. Taken together, these findings indicate that D-serine levels can be also modulated by post-translational modifications of hDAAO as also known for the D-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase.

Yin and Yang in Post-Translational Modifications of Human D-Amino Acid Oxidase

Sacchi S.
;
Rabattoni V.;Miceli M.;Pollegioni L.
2021

Abstract

In the central nervous system, the flavoprotein D-amino acid oxidase is responsible for catabolizing D-serine, the main endogenous coagonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor. Dysregulation of D-serine brain levels in humans has been associated with neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. This D-amino acid is synthesized by the enzyme serine racemase, starting from the corresponding L-enantiomer, and degraded by both serine racemase (via an elimination reaction) and the flavoenzyme D-amino acid oxidase. To shed light on the role of human D-amino acid oxidase (hDAAO) in D-serine metabolism, the structural/functional relationships of this enzyme have been investigated in depth and several strategies aimed at controlling the enzymatic activity have been identified. Here, we focused on the effect of post-translational modifications: by using a combination of structural analyses, biochemical methods, and cellular studies, we investigated whether hDAAO is subjected to nitrosylation, sulfhydration, and phosphorylation. hDAAO is S-nitrosylated and this negatively affects its activity. In contrast, the hydrogen sulfide donor NaHS seems to alter the enzyme conformation, stabilizing a species with higher affinity for the flavin adenine dinucleotide cofactor and thus positively affecting enzymatic activity. Moreover, hDAAO is phosphorylated in cerebellum; however, the protein kinase involved is still unknown. Taken together, these findings indicate that D-serine levels can be also modulated by post-translational modifications of hDAAO as also known for the D-serine synthetic enzyme serine racemase.
biochemical properties; D-serine; flavoprotein; nitrosylation; phosphorylation; sulfhydration
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11383/2114644
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