The growth in knowledge of the pathogenesis, molecular background, and immunohistochemical profile of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has led not only to an increased awareness of these diseases but also to several changes of the nomenclature. In particular, the concept and terminology of high-grade (grade 3) NENs and mixed neoplasms have changed considerably over the last 20 years, creating some confusion among pathologists and clinicians. The aim of this review is to elucidate the diagnostic criteria, including the most important differential diagnoses of high-grade NENs and mixed neuroendocrine/non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs). The role of the Ki67 labelling index and morphology, used to define grade 3 NENs of the digestive system and lungs, is also discussed. The evolution of the concepts and terminology of MiNENs is revised, including the most important differential diagnoses.

Challenges in high-grade neuroendocrine neoplasms and mixed neuroendocrine/non-neuroendocrine neoplasms

La Rosa S
2021-01-01

Abstract

The growth in knowledge of the pathogenesis, molecular background, and immunohistochemical profile of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has led not only to an increased awareness of these diseases but also to several changes of the nomenclature. In particular, the concept and terminology of high-grade (grade 3) NENs and mixed neoplasms have changed considerably over the last 20 years, creating some confusion among pathologists and clinicians. The aim of this review is to elucidate the diagnostic criteria, including the most important differential diagnoses of high-grade NENs and mixed neuroendocrine/non-neuroendocrine neoplasms (MiNENs). The role of the Ki67 labelling index and morphology, used to define grade 3 NENs of the digestive system and lungs, is also discussed. The evolution of the concepts and terminology of MiNENs is revised, including the most important differential diagnoses.
2021
La Rosa, S
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2119839
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