Background: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may cause an acute multiorgan syndrome (coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), data are emerging on mid-and long-term sequelae of COVID-19 pneumonia. Since no study has hitherto investigated the role of both cardiac and pulmonary ultrasound techniques in detecting such sequelae, this study aimed at evaluating these simple diagnostic tools to appraise the cardiopulmonary involvement after COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: Twenty-nine patients fully recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia were considered at our centre. On admission, all patients underwent 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) evaluation. Compression ultrasound (CUS) and lung ultrasound (LUS) were also performed. Finally, in each patient, pathological findings detected on LUS were correlated with the pulmonary involvement occurring after COVID-19 pneumonia, as assessed on thoracic computed tomography (CT). Results: Out of 29 patients (mean age 70 ± 10 years; males 69%), prior cardiovascular and pulmonary comorbidities were recorded in 22 (76%). Twenty-seven patients (93%) were in sinus rhythm and two (7%) in atrial fibrillation. Persistence of ECG abnormalities from the acute phase was common, and nonspecific repolarisation abnormalities (93%) reflected the high prevalence of pericardial involvement on TTE (86%). Likewise, pleural abnormalities were frequently observed (66%). TTE signs of left and right ventricular dysfunction were reported in two patients, and values of systolic pulmonary artery pressure were abnormal in 16 (55%, despite the absence of prior comorbidities in 44% of them). Regarding LUS evaluation, most patients displayed abnormal values of diaphragmatic thickness and excursion (93%), which correlated well with the high prevalence (76%) of pathological findings on CT scan. CUS ruled out deep vein thrombosis in all patients. Conclusions: Data on cardiopulmonary involvement after COVID-19 pneumonia are scarce. In our study, simple diagnostic tools (TTE and LUS) proved clinically useful for the detection of cardiopulmonary complications after COVID-19 pneumonia.

Combined use of electrocardiography and ultrasound to detect cardiac and pulmonary involvement after recovery from COVID-19 pneumonia: A case series

Marazzato J.;De Ponti R.;Visca D.;Spanevello A.;Zappa M.;Mancinelli A.;Angeli F.
2021

Abstract

Background: Although severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) may cause an acute multiorgan syndrome (coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)), data are emerging on mid-and long-term sequelae of COVID-19 pneumonia. Since no study has hitherto investigated the role of both cardiac and pulmonary ultrasound techniques in detecting such sequelae, this study aimed at evaluating these simple diagnostic tools to appraise the cardiopulmonary involvement after COVID-19 pneumonia. Methods: Twenty-nine patients fully recovered from COVID-19 pneumonia were considered at our centre. On admission, all patients underwent 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) evaluation. Compression ultrasound (CUS) and lung ultrasound (LUS) were also performed. Finally, in each patient, pathological findings detected on LUS were correlated with the pulmonary involvement occurring after COVID-19 pneumonia, as assessed on thoracic computed tomography (CT). Results: Out of 29 patients (mean age 70 ± 10 years; males 69%), prior cardiovascular and pulmonary comorbidities were recorded in 22 (76%). Twenty-seven patients (93%) were in sinus rhythm and two (7%) in atrial fibrillation. Persistence of ECG abnormalities from the acute phase was common, and nonspecific repolarisation abnormalities (93%) reflected the high prevalence of pericardial involvement on TTE (86%). Likewise, pleural abnormalities were frequently observed (66%). TTE signs of left and right ventricular dysfunction were reported in two patients, and values of systolic pulmonary artery pressure were abnormal in 16 (55%, despite the absence of prior comorbidities in 44% of them). Regarding LUS evaluation, most patients displayed abnormal values of diaphragmatic thickness and excursion (93%), which correlated well with the high prevalence (76%) of pathological findings on CT scan. CUS ruled out deep vein thrombosis in all patients. Conclusions: Data on cardiopulmonary involvement after COVID-19 pneumonia are scarce. In our study, simple diagnostic tools (TTE and LUS) proved clinically useful for the detection of cardiopulmonary complications after COVID-19 pneumonia.
COVID-19; Diaphragmatic excursion; Diaphragmatic thickness; Electrocardiography; Interstitial pneumonia; Long COVID; Lung ultrasound; SARS-CoV-2; Transthoracic echocardiography
Marazzato, J.; De Ponti, R.; Verdecchia, P.; Masnaghetti, S.; Visca, D.; Spanevello, A.; Trapasso, M.; Zappa, M.; Mancinelli, A.; Angeli, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11383/2120022
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