Mucosal melanoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of melanoma. Unlike its cutaneous counterpart, mucosal melanoma has only gained limited benefit from novel treatment approaches due to the lack of actionable driver mutations and poor response to immunotherapy. Over the last years, whole-genome and exome sequencing techniques have led to increased knowledge on the molecular landscape of mucosal melanoma. Molecular studies have underlined noteworthy findings with potential therapeutic implications, including the presence of KIT mutations, which are potential targets of tyrosine kinase inhibitors currently in use in the clinic (imatinib), but also SF3B1 mutation, CDK4 amplifications, and CDKN2A gene deletions, which are presently under investigation in clinical trials. Recent results from a pooled analysis of patients with mucosal melanoma treated with immunotherapy have suggested that the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors might improve survival outcomes in this subset of patients, as compared with single-agent immunotherapy. However, these results are not confirmed across different studies, and combo-immunotherapy correlates with a higher rate of adverse events. In this review, we describe the clinical, biological, and genetic features of mucosal melanoma. We also provide an update on the results of approved systemic treatment in this setting and overview the therapeutic strategies currently under investigation in clinical trials.

Molecular Profiling and Novel Therapeutic Strategies for Mucosal Melanoma: A Comprehensive Review

Grossi F.;
2022-01-01

Abstract

Mucosal melanoma is a rare and aggressive subtype of melanoma. Unlike its cutaneous counterpart, mucosal melanoma has only gained limited benefit from novel treatment approaches due to the lack of actionable driver mutations and poor response to immunotherapy. Over the last years, whole-genome and exome sequencing techniques have led to increased knowledge on the molecular landscape of mucosal melanoma. Molecular studies have underlined noteworthy findings with potential therapeutic implications, including the presence of KIT mutations, which are potential targets of tyrosine kinase inhibitors currently in use in the clinic (imatinib), but also SF3B1 mutation, CDK4 amplifications, and CDKN2A gene deletions, which are presently under investigation in clinical trials. Recent results from a pooled analysis of patients with mucosal melanoma treated with immunotherapy have suggested that the combination of immune checkpoint inhibitors might improve survival outcomes in this subset of patients, as compared with single-agent immunotherapy. However, these results are not confirmed across different studies, and combo-immunotherapy correlates with a higher rate of adverse events. In this review, we describe the clinical, biological, and genetic features of mucosal melanoma. We also provide an update on the results of approved systemic treatment in this setting and overview the therapeutic strategies currently under investigation in clinical trials.
2022
C-kit; Immunotherapy; Melanoma; Mucosal; Targeted therapy
Indini, A.; Roila, F.; Grossi, F.; Massi, D.; Mandala, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2124838
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