Activating mutations in RAS family proteins are found in ~25% of all human cancers. Different solid tumors are correlated with mutations in certain isoforms of RAS, with Kirsten RAS (KRAS) being the most frequently mutated isoform. Historically, KRAS has been acknowledged as “undruggable”, largely because the RAS proteins do not appear to present suitable pockets to which small inhibitory molecules can bind. However, this scenario has changed over the last years with the advent of novel KRAS inhibitors. In this review, we describe the role of KRAS mutation across different solid tumors, providing data on novel KRAS inhibitors currently under development and an updated overview of ongoing research in this field. A literature search was performed to select papers, abstracts, and oral presentation on KRAS inhibitory strategies in KRAS mutated solid tumors. Overall, the most promising therapeutic results have been obtained with molecules targeting KRAS G12C, thus paving the way for a significant therapeutic improvement in non-small cell lung cancer. Unfortunately, KRAS G12C mutation is rather uncommon in other solid tumors, namely pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer. Several combination strategies are currently under evaluation in clinical trials, in order to bypass the resistance mechanisms responsible for the intrinsic resistance of mutated KRAS to the main therapeutic strategies adopted to date. Results suggest that the therapeutic scenario of KRAS has started to change, and further research will bring therapeutic results in this field.

Targeting kras in solid tumors: Current challenges and future opportunities of novel kras inhibitors

Grossi F.
2021-01-01

Abstract

Activating mutations in RAS family proteins are found in ~25% of all human cancers. Different solid tumors are correlated with mutations in certain isoforms of RAS, with Kirsten RAS (KRAS) being the most frequently mutated isoform. Historically, KRAS has been acknowledged as “undruggable”, largely because the RAS proteins do not appear to present suitable pockets to which small inhibitory molecules can bind. However, this scenario has changed over the last years with the advent of novel KRAS inhibitors. In this review, we describe the role of KRAS mutation across different solid tumors, providing data on novel KRAS inhibitors currently under development and an updated overview of ongoing research in this field. A literature search was performed to select papers, abstracts, and oral presentation on KRAS inhibitory strategies in KRAS mutated solid tumors. Overall, the most promising therapeutic results have been obtained with molecules targeting KRAS G12C, thus paving the way for a significant therapeutic improvement in non-small cell lung cancer. Unfortunately, KRAS G12C mutation is rather uncommon in other solid tumors, namely pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma and colorectal cancer. Several combination strategies are currently under evaluation in clinical trials, in order to bypass the resistance mechanisms responsible for the intrinsic resistance of mutated KRAS to the main therapeutic strategies adopted to date. Results suggest that the therapeutic scenario of KRAS has started to change, and further research will bring therapeutic results in this field.
2021
AMG510; Colorectal cancer; Endometrial cancer; KRAS; LGSOC; NSCLC; Pancreatic cancer; Sotorasib
Indini, A.; Rijavec, E.; Ghidini, M.; Cortellini, A.; Grossi, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2125725
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