Recently, a growing body of evidence has emerged regarding the interplay between microbiota and the nervous system. This relationship has been associated with several pathological conditions and also with the onset and regulation of pain. Dysregulation of the axis leads to a huge variety of diseases such as visceral hypersensitivity, stress-induced hyperalgesia, allodynia, inflammatory pain and functional disorders. In pain management, probiotics have shown promising results. This narrative review describes the peripheral and central mechanisms underlying pain processing and regulation, highlighting the role of the gut-brain axis in the modulation of pain. We summarized the main findings in regard to the stress impact on microbiota’s composition and its influence on pain perception. We also focused on the relationship between gut microbiota and both visceral and inflammatory pain and we provided a summary of the main evidence regarding the mechanistic effects and probiotics use.