Filter-feeding bivalves, such as the Mytilus species, are exposed to different types of bacteria in the surrounding waters, in particular of the Vibrio genus. Mussels lack an adaptive immune system and hemocytes can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to activate intracellular signaling pathways to trigger the antimicrobial effectors synthesis. Among the areas of bivalve immunity that deserve study include the role of hemocyte subpopulations. Since little information are available on immune responses at the tissue level to human pathogenic vibrios commonly detected in coastal waters involved in seafood-borne diseases, in this work, immunological parameters of the hemocytes from the Mediterranean mussel M. galloprovincialis were evaluated in response to in vivo challenge with Vibrio splendidus. The histological approach has been first used in order to identify the hemocytes recruitment at the infection site and the morphological change of muscular fibers. In addition, using immunolabeling with specific antibody we detected the production of molecules involved in the inflammatory activated cascade: Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), the Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) and the ribonucleases RNASET2, belonging to the T2 family, that in vertebrates are involved in the recruitment and activation of macrophages. Our results indicate the activation of TLR4 during bacterial infection preparatory to the recruitment of the MyD88 adapter with a putative role in recognition and intracellular signalling. Furthermore, the data presented in this work suggest that challenging with Gram-negative bacteria causes a massive migration of AIF-1+ hemocytes and that the ribonuclease RNASET2 could play a key role in the recruitment of these activated hemocytes. Our approach is useful for further understanding the complex molecular defence mechanisms of the host in invertebrates, especially in relation to the need to develop methods to evaluate the immunological response of bivalve molluscs used in aquaculture.

AIF-1 and RNASET2 are involved in the inflammatory response in the Mediterranean mussel Mytilus galloprovincialis following Vibrio infection

Baranzini N.;
2022

Abstract

Filter-feeding bivalves, such as the Mytilus species, are exposed to different types of bacteria in the surrounding waters, in particular of the Vibrio genus. Mussels lack an adaptive immune system and hemocytes can recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) to activate intracellular signaling pathways to trigger the antimicrobial effectors synthesis. Among the areas of bivalve immunity that deserve study include the role of hemocyte subpopulations. Since little information are available on immune responses at the tissue level to human pathogenic vibrios commonly detected in coastal waters involved in seafood-borne diseases, in this work, immunological parameters of the hemocytes from the Mediterranean mussel M. galloprovincialis were evaluated in response to in vivo challenge with Vibrio splendidus. The histological approach has been first used in order to identify the hemocytes recruitment at the infection site and the morphological change of muscular fibers. In addition, using immunolabeling with specific antibody we detected the production of molecules involved in the inflammatory activated cascade: Toll-like receptors 4 (TLR4), the myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88), the Allograft inflammatory factor-1 (AIF-1) and the ribonucleases RNASET2, belonging to the T2 family, that in vertebrates are involved in the recruitment and activation of macrophages. Our results indicate the activation of TLR4 during bacterial infection preparatory to the recruitment of the MyD88 adapter with a putative role in recognition and intracellular signalling. Furthermore, the data presented in this work suggest that challenging with Gram-negative bacteria causes a massive migration of AIF-1+ hemocytes and that the ribonuclease RNASET2 could play a key role in the recruitment of these activated hemocytes. Our approach is useful for further understanding the complex molecular defence mechanisms of the host in invertebrates, especially in relation to the need to develop methods to evaluate the immunological response of bivalve molluscs used in aquaculture.
AIF-1; Bacterial challenge; Cellular immunity; Immunohistochemistry; M. galloprovincialis; Myd88; RNASET2; TLR4
Parisi, M. G.; Baranzini, N.; Dara, M.; La Corte, C.; Vizioli, J.; Cammarata, M.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11383/2137954
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