In insects, the cell-mediated immune response involves an active role of hemocytes in phagocytosis, nodulation, and encapsulation. Although these processes have been well documented in multiple species belonging to different insect orders, information concerning the immune response, particularly the hemocyte types and their specific function in the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens, is still limited. This is a serious gap in knowledge given the high economic relevance of H. illucens larvae in waste management strategies and considering that the saprophagous feeding habits of this dipteran species have likely shaped its immune system to efficiently respond to infections. The present study represents the first detailed characterization of black soldier fly hemocytes and provides new insights into the cell-mediated immune response of this insect. In particular, in addition to prohemocytes, we identified five hemocyte types that mount the immune response in the larva, and analyzed their behavior, role, and morphofunctional changes in response to bacterial infection and injection of chromatographic beads. Our results demonstrate that the circulating phagocytes in black soldier fly larvae are plasmatocytes. These cells also take part in nodulation and encapsulation with granulocytes and lamellocyte-like cells, developing a starting core for nodule/capsule formation to remove/encapsulate large bacterial aggregates/pathogens from the hemolymph, respectively. These processes are supported by the release of melanin precursors from crystal cells and likely by mobilizing nutrient reserves in newly circulating adipohemocytes, which could thus trophically support other hemocytes during the immune response. Finally, the regulation of the cell-mediated immune response by eicosanoids was investigated.

Morphofunctional characterization of hemocytes in black soldier fly larvae

Bruno D.
Co-primo
;
Gariboldi M.;Tettamanti G.
2022-01-01

Abstract

In insects, the cell-mediated immune response involves an active role of hemocytes in phagocytosis, nodulation, and encapsulation. Although these processes have been well documented in multiple species belonging to different insect orders, information concerning the immune response, particularly the hemocyte types and their specific function in the black soldier fly Hermetia illucens, is still limited. This is a serious gap in knowledge given the high economic relevance of H. illucens larvae in waste management strategies and considering that the saprophagous feeding habits of this dipteran species have likely shaped its immune system to efficiently respond to infections. The present study represents the first detailed characterization of black soldier fly hemocytes and provides new insights into the cell-mediated immune response of this insect. In particular, in addition to prohemocytes, we identified five hemocyte types that mount the immune response in the larva, and analyzed their behavior, role, and morphofunctional changes in response to bacterial infection and injection of chromatographic beads. Our results demonstrate that the circulating phagocytes in black soldier fly larvae are plasmatocytes. These cells also take part in nodulation and encapsulation with granulocytes and lamellocyte-like cells, developing a starting core for nodule/capsule formation to remove/encapsulate large bacterial aggregates/pathogens from the hemolymph, respectively. These processes are supported by the release of melanin precursors from crystal cells and likely by mobilizing nutrient reserves in newly circulating adipohemocytes, which could thus trophically support other hemocytes during the immune response. Finally, the regulation of the cell-mediated immune response by eicosanoids was investigated.
2022
2022
Hermetia illucens; eicosanoids; encapsulation; hemocytes; immunity; phagocytosis
Bruno, D.; Montali, A.; Gariboldi, M.; Wronska, A. K.; Kaczmarek, A.; Mohamed, A.; Tian, L.; Casartelli, M.; Tettamanti, G.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2141912
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