Aquaculture is one of the world’s fastest growing food-producing sectors, providing more than half of all fish consumed globally for human nutrition. However, to maintain such growth and meet the increasing demand for aquatic food, sustainable raw materials for fish feeds are needed. In this regard, insects represent one of the most promising alternatives to fish meal (FM) protein source for use in aquafeeds. In addition to protein, insects contain bioactive compounds, such as chitin, which is a natural polysaccharide abundantly present in the pupal exuviae of some insects. Studies have shown that dietary chitin or its derivate chitosan acts as a prebiotic thus modulating the gut microbial communities of fish. Accordingly, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of two waste products rich in chitin, i.e., shrimp head meal (SHM), and insect (Hermetia illucens) pupal exuviae on the gut microbiota of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three isoproteic, isolipidic, and isoenergetic diets containing either FM, SHD, or a combination of FM and 1.6% of pupal exuviae meal (PEM) were tested through a 91-day feeding trial. At the end of the experiment, no differences in final mean body weight, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio values were observed between fish experimental groups. Mortality was <1% and it did not correlate with diet for the entire duration of the trial. However, a modulatory effect of dietary pupal exuviae on fish gut microbiota was detected. Indeed, gut bacterial species richness improved by including insect exuviae. In particular, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla, mainly represented by Bacillus, Facklamia, Brevibacterium, and Corynebacterium genera, were enriched in trout receiving pupal exuviae. These genera are chitinolytic and shortchain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria. SCFAs production was confirmed by gas chromatography analysis, which detected the highest amount of butyrate in feces of trout fed with pupal exuviae meal. Functional inference analysis of intestinal microbiota using PICRUST metagenome prediction tool, showed differences in response to diet. In particular, eleven pathways were significantly different between control fish (FM) and fish fed the PEM diet, whereas twenty functional traits were significantly different between the FM and SHM fish groups. Overall, our data confirmed that chitin from insect’s pupal exuviae represents a promising functional ingredient, better than SHM, for positively modulating gut microbiota communities of rainbow trout.

Potential of shrimp waste meal and insect exuviae as sustainable sources of chitin for fish feeds.

Rimoldi S;Antonini M;Terova G
2023-01-01

Abstract

Aquaculture is one of the world’s fastest growing food-producing sectors, providing more than half of all fish consumed globally for human nutrition. However, to maintain such growth and meet the increasing demand for aquatic food, sustainable raw materials for fish feeds are needed. In this regard, insects represent one of the most promising alternatives to fish meal (FM) protein source for use in aquafeeds. In addition to protein, insects contain bioactive compounds, such as chitin, which is a natural polysaccharide abundantly present in the pupal exuviae of some insects. Studies have shown that dietary chitin or its derivate chitosan acts as a prebiotic thus modulating the gut microbial communities of fish. Accordingly, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of two waste products rich in chitin, i.e., shrimp head meal (SHM), and insect (Hermetia illucens) pupal exuviae on the gut microbiota of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Three isoproteic, isolipidic, and isoenergetic diets containing either FM, SHD, or a combination of FM and 1.6% of pupal exuviae meal (PEM) were tested through a 91-day feeding trial. At the end of the experiment, no differences in final mean body weight, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio values were observed between fish experimental groups. Mortality was <1% and it did not correlate with diet for the entire duration of the trial. However, a modulatory effect of dietary pupal exuviae on fish gut microbiota was detected. Indeed, gut bacterial species richness improved by including insect exuviae. In particular, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria phyla, mainly represented by Bacillus, Facklamia, Brevibacterium, and Corynebacterium genera, were enriched in trout receiving pupal exuviae. These genera are chitinolytic and shortchain fatty acids (SCFAs)-producing bacteria. SCFAs production was confirmed by gas chromatography analysis, which detected the highest amount of butyrate in feces of trout fed with pupal exuviae meal. Functional inference analysis of intestinal microbiota using PICRUST metagenome prediction tool, showed differences in response to diet. In particular, eleven pathways were significantly different between control fish (FM) and fish fed the PEM diet, whereas twenty functional traits were significantly different between the FM and SHM fish groups. Overall, our data confirmed that chitin from insect’s pupal exuviae represents a promising functional ingredient, better than SHM, for positively modulating gut microbiota communities of rainbow trout.
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquaculture.2023.739256
Rainbow trout, Insect exuviae, Gut microbiota, Chitin, Prebiotics, SCFA
Rimoldi, S; Ceccotti, C; Brambilla, F; Faccenda, F; Antonini, M; Terova, G
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2145293
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