: Type 2 diabetes mellitus DM (T2DM) is associated with a 70% increased risk for dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin resistance has been proposed to play a pivotal role in both T2DM and AD and the concept of "brain insulin resistance" has been suggested as an interpretation to the growing literature regarding cognitive impairment and T2DM. Subjects with T2DM present an abnormal platelet reactivity that together with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia effect the vascular wall by a series of events including endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation. Activated platelets directly contribute to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) by promoting the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates and that Aβ, in turn, activates platelets, creating a feed-forward loop suggesting the involvement of platelets in the AD pathogenesis. Moreover, islet amyloid polypeptide deposition, co-localized with Aβ deposits, is a common finding in the brain of patients with T2DM. These observations raise the intriguing prospect that traditional or novel antiplatelet therapeutic strategies may alleviate fibril formation and could be used in the prevention or treatment of AD subjects with diabetes.

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Platelet Activation and Alzheimer's Disease: A Possible Connection

Carbone, Manuel Glauco
Primo
Writing – Review & Editing
;
Callegari, Camilla
Supervision
;
2022-01-01

Abstract

: Type 2 diabetes mellitus DM (T2DM) is associated with a 70% increased risk for dementia, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). Insulin resistance has been proposed to play a pivotal role in both T2DM and AD and the concept of "brain insulin resistance" has been suggested as an interpretation to the growing literature regarding cognitive impairment and T2DM. Subjects with T2DM present an abnormal platelet reactivity that together with insulin resistance, hyperglycaemia and dyslipidaemia effect the vascular wall by a series of events including endothelial dysfunction, oxidative stress and low-grade inflammation. Activated platelets directly contribute to cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) by promoting the formation of β-amyloid (Aβ) aggregates and that Aβ, in turn, activates platelets, creating a feed-forward loop suggesting the involvement of platelets in the AD pathogenesis. Moreover, islet amyloid polypeptide deposition, co-localized with Aβ deposits, is a common finding in the brain of patients with T2DM. These observations raise the intriguing prospect that traditional or novel antiplatelet therapeutic strategies may alleviate fibril formation and could be used in the prevention or treatment of AD subjects with diabetes.
Alzheimer’s disease; neuroinflammation; perivascular inflammation; platelet activation; type 2 diabetes mellitus; β-amyloid
Carbone, Manuel Glauco; Pomara, Nunzio; Callegari, Camilla; Marazziti, Donatella; Imbimbo, Bruno Pietro
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2145353
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