Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive, debilitating condition characterized by increased resistance in the pulmonary arterial circulation. Current treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension include endothelin receptor antagonists such as bosentan, sitaxentan, ambrisentan, macitentan, and oral prostacyclin receptor agonists such as selexipag. Endothelin receptor antagonists have been associated with liver injury, while hepatotoxicity was not reported for selexipag. Although genetic variability has been indisputably associated with variability in drug response, no study has been designed until now to assess its effects on the pharmacokinetics of endothelin receptor antagonists or selexipag. Case presentation: We report the case of a 58-year-old female Caucasian patient with a dramatic increase in plasma levels of transaminases after treatment with macitentan and selexipag, drugs whose risk of causing liver injury has so far been considered limited. After therapy discontinuation, plasma levels of transaminases returned to baseline, thus suggesting a role of these drugs in the observed hepatotoxicity. After pharmacological counseling, we decided to introduce ambrisentan for the patient's treatment. After 7 months of treatment, no liver injury has been reported. To evaluate the role of genetic factors in the observed hepatotoxicity, we genotyped the patient for single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with macitentan, ambrisentan, or selexipag metabolism. We found a genetic profile associated with a poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype for CYP2C8 and CYP2C9, key enzymes for elimination of both macitentan and selexipag. The reported results suggest that an allelic profile associated with low activity for CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 enzyme could be a potential risk factor for macitentan and selexipag-induced liver injury and could provide a possible marker for early identification of subjects at higher risk of developing hepatotoxicity. Conclusions: A multidisciplinary approach based on clinical evaluation, as well as pharmacological counseling and evaluation of the patient's genetic profile, might be useful for identification of patients with a high chance of drug-induced liver injury, avoiding unnecessary risks in therapy selection and prescription.

Pharmacological counseling in hepatotoxicity induced by macitentan and selexipag:  a case report

Lattanzio, Mariangela;Martini, Stefano;Ceriani, Francesca;Marino, Franca;De Ponti, Roberto;Cosentino, Marco
2022-01-01

Abstract

Background: Pulmonary arterial hypertension is a progressive, debilitating condition characterized by increased resistance in the pulmonary arterial circulation. Current treatments for pulmonary arterial hypertension include endothelin receptor antagonists such as bosentan, sitaxentan, ambrisentan, macitentan, and oral prostacyclin receptor agonists such as selexipag. Endothelin receptor antagonists have been associated with liver injury, while hepatotoxicity was not reported for selexipag. Although genetic variability has been indisputably associated with variability in drug response, no study has been designed until now to assess its effects on the pharmacokinetics of endothelin receptor antagonists or selexipag. Case presentation: We report the case of a 58-year-old female Caucasian patient with a dramatic increase in plasma levels of transaminases after treatment with macitentan and selexipag, drugs whose risk of causing liver injury has so far been considered limited. After therapy discontinuation, plasma levels of transaminases returned to baseline, thus suggesting a role of these drugs in the observed hepatotoxicity. After pharmacological counseling, we decided to introduce ambrisentan for the patient's treatment. After 7 months of treatment, no liver injury has been reported. To evaluate the role of genetic factors in the observed hepatotoxicity, we genotyped the patient for single-nucleotide polymorphisms previously associated with macitentan, ambrisentan, or selexipag metabolism. We found a genetic profile associated with a poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype for CYP2C8 and CYP2C9, key enzymes for elimination of both macitentan and selexipag. The reported results suggest that an allelic profile associated with low activity for CYP2C8 and CYP2C9 enzyme could be a potential risk factor for macitentan and selexipag-induced liver injury and could provide a possible marker for early identification of subjects at higher risk of developing hepatotoxicity. Conclusions: A multidisciplinary approach based on clinical evaluation, as well as pharmacological counseling and evaluation of the patient's genetic profile, might be useful for identification of patients with a high chance of drug-induced liver injury, avoiding unnecessary risks in therapy selection and prescription.
Liver injury; Oral endothelin receptor antagonists; Oral prostacyclin receptor agonists; Polymorphisms; Pulmonary arterial hypertension
Lattanzio, Mariangela; Ferrari, Marco; Martini, Stefano; Ceriani, Francesca; Imporzani, Andrea; Marino, Franca; De Ponti, Roberto; Cosentino, Marco
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2145871
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