Amphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant that is commonly abused. The stimulant properties of AMPH are associated with its ability to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. This increase is promoted by nonvesicular DA release mediated by reversal of DA transporter (DAT) function. Syntaxin 1 (Stx1) is a SNARE protein that is phosphorylated at Ser(14) by casein kinase II. We show that Stx1 phosphorylation is critical for AMPH-induced nonvesicular DA release and, in Drosophila melanogaster, regulates the expression of AMPH-induced preference and sexual motivation. Our molecular dynamics simulations of the DAT/Stx1 complex demonstrate that phosphorylation of these proteins is pivotal for DAT to dwell in a DA releasing state. This state is characterized by the breakdown of two key salt bridges within the DAT intracellular gate, causing the opening and hydration of the DAT intracellular vestibule, allowing DA to bind from the cytosol, a mechanism that we hypothesize underlies nonvesicular DA release.

Syntaxin 1 Ser14 phosphorylation is required for nonvesicular dopamine release

Romanazzi T.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Amphetamine (AMPH) is a psychostimulant that is commonly abused. The stimulant properties of AMPH are associated with its ability to increase dopamine (DA) neurotransmission. This increase is promoted by nonvesicular DA release mediated by reversal of DA transporter (DAT) function. Syntaxin 1 (Stx1) is a SNARE protein that is phosphorylated at Ser(14) by casein kinase II. We show that Stx1 phosphorylation is critical for AMPH-induced nonvesicular DA release and, in Drosophila melanogaster, regulates the expression of AMPH-induced preference and sexual motivation. Our molecular dynamics simulations of the DAT/Stx1 complex demonstrate that phosphorylation of these proteins is pivotal for DAT to dwell in a DA releasing state. This state is characterized by the breakdown of two key salt bridges within the DAT intracellular gate, causing the opening and hydration of the DAT intracellular vestibule, allowing DA to bind from the cytosol, a mechanism that we hypothesize underlies nonvesicular DA release.
2023
2023
Shekar, A.; Mabry, S. J.; Cheng, M. H.; Aguilar, J. I.; Patel, S.; Zanella, D.; Saleeby, D. P.; Zhu, Y.; Romanazzi, T.; Ulery-Reynolds, P.; Bahar, I.; Carter, A. M.; Matthies, H. J. G.; Galli, A.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2146172
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