The role of betaine in the liver and kidney has been well documented, even from the cellular and molecular point of view. Despite literature reporting positive effects of betaine supplementation in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and schizophrenia, the role and function of betaine in the brain are little studied and reviewed. Beneficial effects of betaine in neurodegeneration, excitatory and inhibitory imbalance and against oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) have been collected and analysed to understand the main role of betaine in the brain. There are many 'dark' aspects needed to complete the picture. The understanding of how this osmolyte is transported across neuron and glial cells is also controversial, as the expression levels and functioning of the known protein capable to transport betaine expressed in the brain, betaine-GABA transporter 1 (BGT-1), is itself not well clarified. The reported actions of betaine beyond BGT-1 related to neuronal degeneration and memory impairment are the focus of this work. With this review, we underline the scarcity of detailed molecular and cellular information about betaine action. Consequently, the requirement of detailed focus on and study of the interaction of this molecule with CNS components to sustain the therapeutic use of betaine.

Betaine-The dark knight of the brain

Bhatt, Manan
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
;
Di Iacovo, Angela
Investigation
;
Romanazzi, Tiziana
Investigation
;
Roseti, Cristina
Membro del Collaboration Group
;
Bossi, Elena
Writing – Original Draft Preparation
2023-01-01

Abstract

The role of betaine in the liver and kidney has been well documented, even from the cellular and molecular point of view. Despite literature reporting positive effects of betaine supplementation in Alzheimer's, Parkinson's and schizophrenia, the role and function of betaine in the brain are little studied and reviewed. Beneficial effects of betaine in neurodegeneration, excitatory and inhibitory imbalance and against oxidative stress in the central nervous system (CNS) have been collected and analysed to understand the main role of betaine in the brain. There are many 'dark' aspects needed to complete the picture. The understanding of how this osmolyte is transported across neuron and glial cells is also controversial, as the expression levels and functioning of the known protein capable to transport betaine expressed in the brain, betaine-GABA transporter 1 (BGT-1), is itself not well clarified. The reported actions of betaine beyond BGT-1 related to neuronal degeneration and memory impairment are the focus of this work. With this review, we underline the scarcity of detailed molecular and cellular information about betaine action. Consequently, the requirement of detailed focus on and study of the interaction of this molecule with CNS components to sustain the therapeutic use of betaine.
2023
2023
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bcpt.13839
Alzheimer's; GABA; PTSD; Parkinson's; betaine; dementia; epilepsy; neurodegenerative disease; neurodevelopmental disorders; oxidative stress; schizophrenia
Bhatt, Manan; Di Iacovo, Angela; Romanazzi, Tiziana; Roseti, Cristina; Bossi, Elena
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2148553
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