IntroductionThe integrity of the gut barrier (GB) is fundamental to regulate the crosstalk between the microbiota and the immune system and to prevent inflammation and autoimmunity at the intestinal level but also in organs distal from the gut such as the pancreatic islets. In support to this idea, we recently demonstrated that breakage of GB integrity leads to activation of islet-reactive T cells and triggers autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). In T1D patients as in the NOD mice, the spontaneous model of autoimmune diabetes, there are alterations of the GB that specifically affect structure and composition of the mucus layer; however, it is yet to be determined whether a causal link between breakage of the GB integrity and occurrence of autoimmune T1D exists. MethodsHere we restored GB integrity in the NOD mice through administration of an anti-inflammatory diet (AID- enriched in soluble fiber inulin and omega 3-PUFA) and tested the effect on T1D pathogenesis. ResultsWe found that the AID prevented T1D in NOD mice by restoring GB integrity with increased mucus layer thickness and higher mRNA transcripts of structural (Muc2) and immunoregulatory mucins (Muc1 and Muc3) as well as of tight junction proteins (claudin1). Restoration of GB integrity was linked to reduction of intestinal inflammation (i.e., reduced expression of IL-1 beta, IL-23 and IL-17 transcripts) and expansion of regulatory T cells (FoxP3(+) Treg cells and IL-10(+) Tr1 cells) at the expenses of effector Th1/Th17 cells in the intestine, pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN) and intra-islet lymphocytes (IIL) of AID-fed NOD mice. Importantly, the restoration of GB integrity and immune homeostasis were associated with enhanced concentrations of anti-inflammatory metabolites of the omega 3/omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and arachidonic pathways and modifications of the microbiome profile with increased relative abundance of mucus-modulating bacterial species such as Akkermansia muciniphila and Akkermansia glycaniphila. DiscussionOur data provide evidence that the restoration of GB integrity and intestinal immune homeostasis through administration of a tolerogenic AID that changed the gut microbial and metabolic profiles prevents autoimmune T1D in preclinical models.

A diet enriched in omega-3 PUFA and inulin prevents type 1 diabetes by restoring gut barrier integrity and immune homeostasis in NOD mice

Ferrarese R.;Mancini N.;
2023-01-01

Abstract

IntroductionThe integrity of the gut barrier (GB) is fundamental to regulate the crosstalk between the microbiota and the immune system and to prevent inflammation and autoimmunity at the intestinal level but also in organs distal from the gut such as the pancreatic islets. In support to this idea, we recently demonstrated that breakage of GB integrity leads to activation of islet-reactive T cells and triggers autoimmune Type 1 Diabetes (T1D). In T1D patients as in the NOD mice, the spontaneous model of autoimmune diabetes, there are alterations of the GB that specifically affect structure and composition of the mucus layer; however, it is yet to be determined whether a causal link between breakage of the GB integrity and occurrence of autoimmune T1D exists. MethodsHere we restored GB integrity in the NOD mice through administration of an anti-inflammatory diet (AID- enriched in soluble fiber inulin and omega 3-PUFA) and tested the effect on T1D pathogenesis. ResultsWe found that the AID prevented T1D in NOD mice by restoring GB integrity with increased mucus layer thickness and higher mRNA transcripts of structural (Muc2) and immunoregulatory mucins (Muc1 and Muc3) as well as of tight junction proteins (claudin1). Restoration of GB integrity was linked to reduction of intestinal inflammation (i.e., reduced expression of IL-1 beta, IL-23 and IL-17 transcripts) and expansion of regulatory T cells (FoxP3(+) Treg cells and IL-10(+) Tr1 cells) at the expenses of effector Th1/Th17 cells in the intestine, pancreatic lymph nodes (PLN) and intra-islet lymphocytes (IIL) of AID-fed NOD mice. Importantly, the restoration of GB integrity and immune homeostasis were associated with enhanced concentrations of anti-inflammatory metabolites of the omega 3/omega 6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and arachidonic pathways and modifications of the microbiome profile with increased relative abundance of mucus-modulating bacterial species such as Akkermansia muciniphila and Akkermansia glycaniphila. DiscussionOur data provide evidence that the restoration of GB integrity and intestinal immune homeostasis through administration of a tolerogenic AID that changed the gut microbial and metabolic profiles prevents autoimmune T1D in preclinical models.
2023
2023
Type 1 diabetes; anti-inflammatory diet (AID); gut barrier integrity; gut microbiota; mucus layer; regulatory T cells
Lo Conte, M.; Antonini Cencicchio, M.; Ulaszewska, M.; Nobili, A.; Cosorich, I.; Ferrarese, R.; Massimino, L.; Andolfo, A.; Ungaro, F.; Mancini, N.; Falcone, M.
File in questo prodotto:
File Dimensione Formato  
139) 2023- A diet enriched in omega-3 PUFA and inulin prevents type 1 diabetes by restoring gut barrier integrity and immune homeostasis in NOD mice.pdf

accesso aperto

Tipologia: Versione Editoriale (PDF)
Licenza: Creative commons
Dimensione 5.77 MB
Formato Adobe PDF
5.77 MB Adobe PDF Visualizza/Apri

I documenti in IRIS sono protetti da copyright e tutti i diritti sono riservati, salvo diversa indicazione.

Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2149533
Citazioni
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.pmc??? 2
  • Scopus 9
  • ???jsp.display-item.citation.isi??? 9
social impact