The introduction of Ki67 immunohistochemistry in the work-up of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has opened a new approach for their diagnosis and prognostic evaluation. Since the first demonstration of the prognostic role of Ki67 proliferative index in pancreatic NENs in 1996, several studies have been performed to explore its prognostic, diagnostic, and predictive role in other neuroendocrine and endocrine neoplasms. A large amount of information is now available and published results globally indicate that Ki67 proliferative index is useful to this scope, although some differences exist in relation to tumor site and type. In gut and pancreatic NENs, the Ki67 proliferative index has a well-documented and accepted diagnostic and prognostic role and its evaluation is mandatory in their diagnostic work-up. In the lung, the Ki67 index is recommended for the diagnosis of NENs on biopsy specimens, but its diagnostic role in surgical specimens still remains to be officially accepted, although its prognostic role is now well documented. In other organs, such as the pituitary, parathyroid, thyroid (follicular cell-derived neoplasms), and adrenal medulla, the Ki67 index does not play a diagnostic role and its prognostic value still remains a controversial issue. In medullary thyroid carcinoma, the Ki67 labelling index is used to define the tumor grade together with other morphological parameters, while in the adrenal cortical carcinoma, it is useful to select patients to treated with mitotane therapy. In the present review, the most important information on the diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive role of Ki67 proliferative index is presented discussing the current knowledge. In addition, technical issues related to the evaluation of Ki67 proliferative index and the future perspectives of the application of Ki67 immunostaining in endocrine and neuroendocrine neoplasms is discussed.

Diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive role of Ki67 proliferative index in neuroendocrine and endocrine neoplasms: past, present, and future

La Rosa S.
2023-01-01

Abstract

The introduction of Ki67 immunohistochemistry in the work-up of neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs) has opened a new approach for their diagnosis and prognostic evaluation. Since the first demonstration of the prognostic role of Ki67 proliferative index in pancreatic NENs in 1996, several studies have been performed to explore its prognostic, diagnostic, and predictive role in other neuroendocrine and endocrine neoplasms. A large amount of information is now available and published results globally indicate that Ki67 proliferative index is useful to this scope, although some differences exist in relation to tumor site and type. In gut and pancreatic NENs, the Ki67 proliferative index has a well-documented and accepted diagnostic and prognostic role and its evaluation is mandatory in their diagnostic work-up. In the lung, the Ki67 index is recommended for the diagnosis of NENs on biopsy specimens, but its diagnostic role in surgical specimens still remains to be officially accepted, although its prognostic role is now well documented. In other organs, such as the pituitary, parathyroid, thyroid (follicular cell-derived neoplasms), and adrenal medulla, the Ki67 index does not play a diagnostic role and its prognostic value still remains a controversial issue. In medullary thyroid carcinoma, the Ki67 labelling index is used to define the tumor grade together with other morphological parameters, while in the adrenal cortical carcinoma, it is useful to select patients to treated with mitotane therapy. In the present review, the most important information on the diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive role of Ki67 proliferative index is presented discussing the current knowledge. In addition, technical issues related to the evaluation of Ki67 proliferative index and the future perspectives of the application of Ki67 immunostaining in endocrine and neuroendocrine neoplasms is discussed.
2023
Classification; Endocrine neoplasms; Ki67; Neuroendocrine neoplasms; Prognosis
La Rosa, S.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2150282
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