Introduction: Liver cirrhosis is accompanied by several hemostatic alterations, which contribute to the current theory of “rebalanced hemostasis.” Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis (17–26% of the cirrhotic patients), and liver cirrhosis is a common risk factor for SVT (24–28% of SVT cases). Areas covered: This narrative review aims to describe the current state of the art on the anticoagulant treatment of cirrhotic SVT, with a particular focus on the possible role of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and recent guidelines on this topic. Expert opinion: Early anticoagulant therapy is recommended in cirrhotic patients with acute SVT, to obtain vessel recanalization and decrease the rates of portal hypertension-related complications. Gastroesophageal varices do not represent a contraindication to anticoagulation, if adequate prophylaxis of variceal bleeding is established, and varices band ligation can be safely performed without the need to stop the anticoagulant treatment. The conventional treatment of cirrhotic SVT consisted of low molecular weight heparin, as initial treatment of choice, eventually followed by vitamin K antagonists, but the DOACs can be considered as a reasonable alternative in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis.

Anticoagulant therapy for splanchnic vein thrombosis: recent updates for patients with liver cirrhosis

Ageno W.
2023-01-01

Abstract

Introduction: Liver cirrhosis is accompanied by several hemostatic alterations, which contribute to the current theory of “rebalanced hemostasis.” Splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT) is a frequent complication of liver cirrhosis (17–26% of the cirrhotic patients), and liver cirrhosis is a common risk factor for SVT (24–28% of SVT cases). Areas covered: This narrative review aims to describe the current state of the art on the anticoagulant treatment of cirrhotic SVT, with a particular focus on the possible role of the direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) and recent guidelines on this topic. Expert opinion: Early anticoagulant therapy is recommended in cirrhotic patients with acute SVT, to obtain vessel recanalization and decrease the rates of portal hypertension-related complications. Gastroesophageal varices do not represent a contraindication to anticoagulation, if adequate prophylaxis of variceal bleeding is established, and varices band ligation can be safely performed without the need to stop the anticoagulant treatment. The conventional treatment of cirrhotic SVT consisted of low molecular weight heparin, as initial treatment of choice, eventually followed by vitamin K antagonists, but the DOACs can be considered as a reasonable alternative in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis.
2023
Direct Oral Anticoagulants; Liver Cirrhosis; Low Molecular Weight Heparin; Splanchnic vein thrombosis; Venous thromboembolism; Vitamin K Antagonists
Caiano, L. M.; Riva, N.; Ageno, W.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2153273
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