Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by a persistent low-grade inflammation that leads to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Several factors are implicated in this pathogenetic pathway, such as innate and adaptive immunity, gut microbiota, environment, and xenobiotics. At the gut mucosa level, a complex interplay between the immune system and gut microbiota occurs; a disequilibrium between these two factors leads to an alteration in the gut permeability, called 'leaky gut'. Subsequently, an activation of several inflammatory pathways and an alteration of gut microbiota composition with a proliferation of pro-inflammatory bacteria, known as 'pathobionts', take place, leading to a further increase in inflammation. This narrative review provides an overview on the principal Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), focusing on their recognition mechanisms, signaling pathways, and contributions to immune responses. We also report the genetic polymorphisms of TLRs and dysregulation of NLR signaling pathways that can influence immune regulation and contribute to the development and progression of inflammatory disease and cancer.

Gut Microbiota, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and Cancer: The Role of Guardians of Innate Immunity

Bosi, Annalisa;Giaroni, Cristina;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are characterized by a persistent low-grade inflammation that leads to an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) development. Several factors are implicated in this pathogenetic pathway, such as innate and adaptive immunity, gut microbiota, environment, and xenobiotics. At the gut mucosa level, a complex interplay between the immune system and gut microbiota occurs; a disequilibrium between these two factors leads to an alteration in the gut permeability, called 'leaky gut'. Subsequently, an activation of several inflammatory pathways and an alteration of gut microbiota composition with a proliferation of pro-inflammatory bacteria, known as 'pathobionts', take place, leading to a further increase in inflammation. This narrative review provides an overview on the principal Pattern Recognition Receptors (PRRs), including Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and NOD-like receptors (NLRs), focusing on their recognition mechanisms, signaling pathways, and contributions to immune responses. We also report the genetic polymorphisms of TLRs and dysregulation of NLR signaling pathways that can influence immune regulation and contribute to the development and progression of inflammatory disease and cancer.
2023
2023
https://www.mdpi.com/2073-4409/12/22/2654
NOD-like receptors; colorectal cancer; genetic polymorphisms; inflammatory bowel diseases; microbiota; toll-like receptors
Giambra, Vincenzo; Pagliari, Danilo; Rio, Pierluigi; Totti, Beatrice; Di Nunzio, Chiara; Bosi, Annalisa; Giaroni, Cristina; Gasbarrini, Antonio; Gambassi, Giovanni; Cianci, Rossella
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2164791
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