Background The aim of this study was to describe the long-term evolution of post-COVID-19 syndrome over 2 years after the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in survivors of the first wave. Methods This prospective study was based on interviews and investigated post-COVID-19 syndrome 6, 12, and 24 months after the disease onset in all adult in- and outpatients with COVID-19 followed at Udine Hospital (Italy) during the first wave (March-May 2020). Humoral response, vaccination status, and reinfection were assessed. Results Overall, 230 patients (53.5% female; mean age 54.7 years) were interviewed 2.3 years (standard deviation = 0.11) after acute onset. Post-COVID-19 syndrome was observed in 36.1% of patients (n = 83) at 2 years. The most common persistent symptoms were fatigue (14.4%), rheumatological (14.4%), and psychiatric symptoms (9.6%). Overall, 55.4% (46 of 83) of long haulers searched for healthcare system support and 21 (45.7%) were visited by a specialist. Female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50, P = .005), a proportional increase in the number of symptoms during acute COVID-19 (OR = 1.40, P = .001), and the presence of comorbidities (OR = 1.57, P = .004) were all independent risk factors for post-COVID-19 syndrome. Vaccination and reinfection had no impact on post-COVID-19 syndrome dynamics. The presence of receptor-binding domain (RBD) SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and non-RBD SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers were not associated with the occurrence of post-COVID-19 syndrome. Conclusions Two years after COVID-19, the burden of persistent symptoms remains high among in- and outpatients' population infected during the first wave. Post-COVID-19 dynamic does not seem to be influenced by SARS-CoV-2 immunization status and reinfection.

Post-COVID-19 Syndrome 2 Years After the First Wave: The Role of Humoral Response, Vaccination and Reinfection

Peghin, Maddalena
;
Grossi, Paolo Antonio;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background The aim of this study was to describe the long-term evolution of post-COVID-19 syndrome over 2 years after the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in survivors of the first wave. Methods This prospective study was based on interviews and investigated post-COVID-19 syndrome 6, 12, and 24 months after the disease onset in all adult in- and outpatients with COVID-19 followed at Udine Hospital (Italy) during the first wave (March-May 2020). Humoral response, vaccination status, and reinfection were assessed. Results Overall, 230 patients (53.5% female; mean age 54.7 years) were interviewed 2.3 years (standard deviation = 0.11) after acute onset. Post-COVID-19 syndrome was observed in 36.1% of patients (n = 83) at 2 years. The most common persistent symptoms were fatigue (14.4%), rheumatological (14.4%), and psychiatric symptoms (9.6%). Overall, 55.4% (46 of 83) of long haulers searched for healthcare system support and 21 (45.7%) were visited by a specialist. Female gender (odds ratio [OR] = 2.50, P = .005), a proportional increase in the number of symptoms during acute COVID-19 (OR = 1.40, P = .001), and the presence of comorbidities (OR = 1.57, P = .004) were all independent risk factors for post-COVID-19 syndrome. Vaccination and reinfection had no impact on post-COVID-19 syndrome dynamics. The presence of receptor-binding domain (RBD) SARS-CoV-2 immunoglobulin G (IgG) and non-RBD SARS-CoV-2 IgG titers were not associated with the occurrence of post-COVID-19 syndrome. Conclusions Two years after COVID-19, the burden of persistent symptoms remains high among in- and outpatients' population infected during the first wave. Post-COVID-19 dynamic does not seem to be influenced by SARS-CoV-2 immunization status and reinfection.
2023
COVID-19; SARS-CoV-2 antibodies; long COVID; post-COVID-19 syndrome
Peghin, Maddalena; De Martino, Maria; Palese, Alvisa; Chiappinotto, Stefania; Fonda, Federico; Gerussi, Valentina; Sartor, Assunta; Curcio, Francesco; Grossi, Paolo Antonio; Isola, Miriam; Tascini, Carlo
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2167742
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