Background: Previous studies have identified areas of cognitive weakness in children diagnosed with Specific Learning Disorder (SLD), in the areas of working memory and processing speed in particular. In adulthood, this literature is still scant, and no studies have compared the cognitive profile of university students with dyslexia (DD) with that of students with Mixed-type SLD. Method: Thus, in this study, the WAIS-IV was used to examine the cognitive functioning of three groups of university students: students with DD, with Mixed-type SLD, and typical students. Statistical analyses were performed to examine differences in WAIS-IV FSIQ, main, and additional indexes and subtests. Results: The results showed strengths in perceptual reasoning and good verbal comprehension abilities in both the DD and Mixed-type SLD group, with weaknesses in working memory and processing speed, leading to a pattern of a better General Ability Index (GAI) than Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) in both clinical groups. Thus, discrepancies between GAI and CPI, well documented in children with SLD, still manifest in adulthood in university students. Our findings also revealed worse cognitive performance in university students with mixed learning disorder relative to students with only a reading deficit. Conclusions: The cognitive features and distinctive subtest profiles that emerged should guide the assessment and the definitions of intervention programs, special educational needs, and strategies of compensation.

Cognitive Profile Discrepancies among Typical University Students and Those with Dyslexia and Mixed-Type Learning Disorder

Termine, Cristiano;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Background: Previous studies have identified areas of cognitive weakness in children diagnosed with Specific Learning Disorder (SLD), in the areas of working memory and processing speed in particular. In adulthood, this literature is still scant, and no studies have compared the cognitive profile of university students with dyslexia (DD) with that of students with Mixed-type SLD. Method: Thus, in this study, the WAIS-IV was used to examine the cognitive functioning of three groups of university students: students with DD, with Mixed-type SLD, and typical students. Statistical analyses were performed to examine differences in WAIS-IV FSIQ, main, and additional indexes and subtests. Results: The results showed strengths in perceptual reasoning and good verbal comprehension abilities in both the DD and Mixed-type SLD group, with weaknesses in working memory and processing speed, leading to a pattern of a better General Ability Index (GAI) than Cognitive Proficiency Index (CPI) in both clinical groups. Thus, discrepancies between GAI and CPI, well documented in children with SLD, still manifest in adulthood in university students. Our findings also revealed worse cognitive performance in university students with mixed learning disorder relative to students with only a reading deficit. Conclusions: The cognitive features and distinctive subtest profiles that emerged should guide the assessment and the definitions of intervention programs, special educational needs, and strategies of compensation.
2023
WAIS-IV; cognitive profile; dyslexia; mixed-type SLD; university students
Scorza, Maristella; Gontkovsky, Samuel T.; Puddu, Marta; Ciaramidaro, Angela; Termine, Cristiano; Simeoni, Loriana; Mauro, Marcella; Benassi, Erika
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2167771
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