Objectives: To investigate the rate and outcome of emergency Cesarean delivery (CD) in women with placenta previa with or without placenta accreta spectrum disorders (PAS) and to elucidate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting emergency CD. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective study involving 16 referral hospitals in Italy (ADoPAD study). Inclusion criteria were women with placenta previa minor (< 20 mm from the internal cervical os) or placenta previa major (covering the os), aged ≥ 18 years, who underwent transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound assessment at ≥ 26 + 0 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was the occurrence of emergency CD, defined as the need for immediate surgical intervention performed for emergency maternal or fetal indication, including active labor, cumulative maternal bleeding > 500 mL, severe and persistent vaginal bleeding such that maternal hemodynamic stability could not be achieved or maintained, or category-III fetal heart rate tracing unresponsive to resuscitative measures. The primary outcome was reported separately in the population of women with placenta previa and no PAS confirmed after birth and in those with PAS. The secondary aim was to report on the strength of association and to test the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting emergency CD. Univariate, multivariate and diagnostic accuracy analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 450 women, including 97 women with placenta previa and PAS and 353 with placenta previa only, were analyzed. In women with placenta previa and PAS, emergency CD was required in 20.6% (95% CI, 14–30%), and 60.0% (12/20) delivered before 34 weeks of gestation. The mean gestational age at delivery was 32.3 ± 2.7 weeks in women undergoing emergency CD and 34.9 ± 1.8 weeks in those undergoing elective CD (P < 0.001). Women undergoing emergency CD had a higher median estimated blood loss (2500 (interquartile range (IQR), 1350–4500) vs 1100 (IQR, 625–2500) mL; P = 0.012), mean units of blood transfused (7.3 ± 8.8 vs 2.5 ± 3.4; P = 0.02) and more frequent placement of a mechanical balloon (50.0% vs 16.9%; P = 0.002) compared with those undergoing elective CD. On univariate analysis, the presence of interrupted retroplacental space, interrupted bladder line and placental lacunae was more common in women not experiencing emergency CD. No comprehensive multivariate analysis could be performed in this subgroup of women. Ultrasound signs of PAS, including presence of interrupted retroplacental space, interrupted bladder line and placental lacunae, were not predictive of emergency CD. In women with placenta previa but no PAS, emergency CD was required in 31.2% (95% CI, 26.6–36.2%), and 32.7% (36/110) delivered before 34 weeks of gestation. The mean gestational age at delivery was lower in women undergoing emergency CD compared with those undergoing elective CD (34.2 ± 2.9 vs 36.7 ± 1.6 weeks; P < 0.001). Pregnancies complicated by emergency CD were associated with a lower birth weight (2330 ± 620 vs 2800 ± 480 g; P < 0.001) and had a higher risk of need for blood transfusion (22.7% vs 10.7%; P = 0.003) compared with those who underwent elective CD. On multivariate analysis, only placental thickness (odds ratio (OR), 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00–1.03); P = 0.046) and cervical length < 25 mm (OR, 3.89 (95% CI, 1.33–11.33); P = 0.01) were associated with emergency CD. However, a short cervical length showed low diagnostic accuracy for predicting emergency CD in these women. Conclusion: Emergency CD occurred in about 20% of women with placenta previa and PAS and 30% of those with placenta previa only and was associated with worse maternal outcome compared with elective intervention. Prenatal ultrasound is not predictive of the risk of emergency CD in women with these disorders. © 2023 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.

Determinants of emergency Cesarean delivery in pregnancies complicated by placenta previa with or without placenta accreta spectrum disorder: analysis of ADoPAD cohort

Cromi A.;
2024-01-01

Abstract

Objectives: To investigate the rate and outcome of emergency Cesarean delivery (CD) in women with placenta previa with or without placenta accreta spectrum disorders (PAS) and to elucidate the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting emergency CD. Methods: This was a secondary analysis of a multicenter prospective study involving 16 referral hospitals in Italy (ADoPAD study). Inclusion criteria were women with placenta previa minor (< 20 mm from the internal cervical os) or placenta previa major (covering the os), aged ≥ 18 years, who underwent transabdominal and transvaginal ultrasound assessment at ≥ 26 + 0 weeks of gestation. The primary outcome was the occurrence of emergency CD, defined as the need for immediate surgical intervention performed for emergency maternal or fetal indication, including active labor, cumulative maternal bleeding > 500 mL, severe and persistent vaginal bleeding such that maternal hemodynamic stability could not be achieved or maintained, or category-III fetal heart rate tracing unresponsive to resuscitative measures. The primary outcome was reported separately in the population of women with placenta previa and no PAS confirmed after birth and in those with PAS. The secondary aim was to report on the strength of association and to test the diagnostic accuracy of ultrasound in predicting emergency CD. Univariate, multivariate and diagnostic accuracy analyses were used to analyze the data. Results: A total of 450 women, including 97 women with placenta previa and PAS and 353 with placenta previa only, were analyzed. In women with placenta previa and PAS, emergency CD was required in 20.6% (95% CI, 14–30%), and 60.0% (12/20) delivered before 34 weeks of gestation. The mean gestational age at delivery was 32.3 ± 2.7 weeks in women undergoing emergency CD and 34.9 ± 1.8 weeks in those undergoing elective CD (P < 0.001). Women undergoing emergency CD had a higher median estimated blood loss (2500 (interquartile range (IQR), 1350–4500) vs 1100 (IQR, 625–2500) mL; P = 0.012), mean units of blood transfused (7.3 ± 8.8 vs 2.5 ± 3.4; P = 0.02) and more frequent placement of a mechanical balloon (50.0% vs 16.9%; P = 0.002) compared with those undergoing elective CD. On univariate analysis, the presence of interrupted retroplacental space, interrupted bladder line and placental lacunae was more common in women not experiencing emergency CD. No comprehensive multivariate analysis could be performed in this subgroup of women. Ultrasound signs of PAS, including presence of interrupted retroplacental space, interrupted bladder line and placental lacunae, were not predictive of emergency CD. In women with placenta previa but no PAS, emergency CD was required in 31.2% (95% CI, 26.6–36.2%), and 32.7% (36/110) delivered before 34 weeks of gestation. The mean gestational age at delivery was lower in women undergoing emergency CD compared with those undergoing elective CD (34.2 ± 2.9 vs 36.7 ± 1.6 weeks; P < 0.001). Pregnancies complicated by emergency CD were associated with a lower birth weight (2330 ± 620 vs 2800 ± 480 g; P < 0.001) and had a higher risk of need for blood transfusion (22.7% vs 10.7%; P = 0.003) compared with those who underwent elective CD. On multivariate analysis, only placental thickness (odds ratio (OR), 1.02 (95% CI, 1.00–1.03); P = 0.046) and cervical length < 25 mm (OR, 3.89 (95% CI, 1.33–11.33); P = 0.01) were associated with emergency CD. However, a short cervical length showed low diagnostic accuracy for predicting emergency CD in these women. Conclusion: Emergency CD occurred in about 20% of women with placenta previa and PAS and 30% of those with placenta previa only and was associated with worse maternal outcome compared with elective intervention. Prenatal ultrasound is not predictive of the risk of emergency CD in women with these disorders. © 2023 International Society of Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology.
2024
2024
Cesarean delivery; emergency delivery; PAS disorder; placenta accreta; placenta previa
Lucidi, A.; Fratelli, N.; Maggi, C.; Cavalli, C.; Sciarrone, A.; Buca, D.; Garofalo, A.; Viora, E.; Vergani, P.; Betti, M.; Vaglio Tessitore, I.; Cavaliere, A. F.; Buongiorno, S.; Vidiri, A.; Fabbri, E.; Ferrazzi, E.; Maggi, V.; Cetin, I.; Frusca, T.; Ghi, T.; Kaihura, C.; Di Pasquo, E.; Stampalija, T.; Belcaro, C.; Quadrifoglio, M.; Veneziano, M.; Mecacci, F.; Simeone, S.; Locatelli, A.; Consonni, S.; Chianchiano, N.; Labate, F.; Calcagno, G.; Cromi, A.; Bertucci, E.; Facchinetti, F.; Giuliani, G. A.; Fichera, A.; Granata, D.; Foti, F.; Avagliano, L.; Bulfamante, G. P.; Khalil, A.; Flacco, M. E.; Manzoli, L.; Prefumo, F.; Cali, G.; D'Antonio, F.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2170291
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