The occurrence of bone marrow metastases (BMM) in melanoma patients is often underestimated, with only 7% detected during in-vivo staging procedures but rising to 45% in autopsy cases. This systematic review aims to shed light on the clinical and laboratory features of BMM in melanoma by analyzing 73 studies selected from 2 482 initially retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases. Our findings reveal a slight male predominance, with a median age at BMM diagnosis of 56 years. Primary melanoma sites included the skin (52%), mucosa (8.8%), uvea (20.5%) and unidentified (19%). BMM was preceded by lymph node involvement in 36.5% of cases, whereas 63% showed no nodal metastases, with direct BMM occurring in 22.5% and metastases to other sites in 41%. Common BMM symptoms included pain (60.7%), anemia (80%), thrombocytopenia, leukoerythroblastosis, pancytopenia and leukopenia, while disseminated intravascular coagulation was detected in 11% of cases. In 23.6% of cases, BMM was amelanotic. The prognosis for BMM is grim, with a median survival of only 2 months. Conventional therapies for BMM remain largely ineffective, emphasizing the importance of considering bone marrow as a potential metastatic site in melanoma patients.

Bone marrow metastases: a systematic review of a neglected involvement in malignant melanoma

Carugno, A
;
2024-01-01

Abstract

The occurrence of bone marrow metastases (BMM) in melanoma patients is often underestimated, with only 7% detected during in-vivo staging procedures but rising to 45% in autopsy cases. This systematic review aims to shed light on the clinical and laboratory features of BMM in melanoma by analyzing 73 studies selected from 2 482 initially retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases. Our findings reveal a slight male predominance, with a median age at BMM diagnosis of 56 years. Primary melanoma sites included the skin (52%), mucosa (8.8%), uvea (20.5%) and unidentified (19%). BMM was preceded by lymph node involvement in 36.5% of cases, whereas 63% showed no nodal metastases, with direct BMM occurring in 22.5% and metastases to other sites in 41%. Common BMM symptoms included pain (60.7%), anemia (80%), thrombocytopenia, leukoerythroblastosis, pancytopenia and leukopenia, while disseminated intravascular coagulation was detected in 11% of cases. In 23.6% of cases, BMM was amelanotic. The prognosis for BMM is grim, with a median survival of only 2 months. Conventional therapies for BMM remain largely ineffective, emphasizing the importance of considering bone marrow as a potential metastatic site in melanoma patients.
2024
2024
bone marrow; melanoma; metastases
Paolino, G; Carugno, A; Rongioletti, F; Ponzoni, M; Russo, V; Sena, P; Ardigò, M; Costanzo, A; Mercuri, Sr; Valenti, M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2174700
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