Objectives This work focuses on a titanium alloy implants incorporating a gradient of porosity, from the inner core to the outer surface, obtained by laser sintering of metal powder. Surface appearance, microstructure, composition, mechanical properties and fractography were evaluated. Methods All the specimens were prepared by a selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti–6Al–4V alloy powder with a particle size of 1–10 μm. The morphological and chemical analyses were performed by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The flexure strength was determined by a three-point bend test using a universal testing machine. The surface roughness was investigated using a confocal scanning laser microscope. The surface roughness variation was statistically evaluated by use of a Chi square test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The original surface microstructure consisted of roughly spherical particles, diameter range 5–50 μm. After exposure to hydrofluoric acid some of these were removed and the microsphere diameter then ranged from 5.1 μm to 26.8 μm. Following an organic acid treatment, particles were replaced by grooves 14.6–152.5 μm in width and 21.4–102.4 μm depth. The metal core consisted of columnar beta grains with alpha and beta laths within the grains. The alloy was composed of 90.08% Ti, 5.67% Al and 4.25% V. The Young's modulus of the inner core material was 104 ± 7.7 GPa; while that of the outer porous material was 77 ± 3.5 GPa. The fracture face showed a dimpled appearance typical of ductile fracture. Significance In conclusion, laser metal sintering proved to be an efficient means of construction of dental implants with a functionally graded material which is better adapted to the elastic properties of the bone. Such implants should minimize stress shielding effects and improve long-term performance

Direct laser metal sintering as a new approach to fabrication of an isoelastic functionally graded material for manufacture of porous titanium dental implants

MACCHI, ALDO;
2008

Abstract

Objectives This work focuses on a titanium alloy implants incorporating a gradient of porosity, from the inner core to the outer surface, obtained by laser sintering of metal powder. Surface appearance, microstructure, composition, mechanical properties and fractography were evaluated. Methods All the specimens were prepared by a selective laser sintering procedure using a Ti–6Al–4V alloy powder with a particle size of 1–10 μm. The morphological and chemical analyses were performed by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The flexure strength was determined by a three-point bend test using a universal testing machine. The surface roughness was investigated using a confocal scanning laser microscope. The surface roughness variation was statistically evaluated by use of a Chi square test. A p value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results The original surface microstructure consisted of roughly spherical particles, diameter range 5–50 μm. After exposure to hydrofluoric acid some of these were removed and the microsphere diameter then ranged from 5.1 μm to 26.8 μm. Following an organic acid treatment, particles were replaced by grooves 14.6–152.5 μm in width and 21.4–102.4 μm depth. The metal core consisted of columnar beta grains with alpha and beta laths within the grains. The alloy was composed of 90.08% Ti, 5.67% Al and 4.25% V. The Young's modulus of the inner core material was 104 ± 7.7 GPa; while that of the outer porous material was 77 ± 3.5 GPa. The fracture face showed a dimpled appearance typical of ductile fracture. Significance In conclusion, laser metal sintering proved to be an efficient means of construction of dental implants with a functionally graded material which is better adapted to the elastic properties of the bone. Such implants should minimize stress shielding effects and improve long-term performance
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2008.03.029
Titanium alloy; Laser manufacturing; Rapid prototyping; Surface roughness; Mechanical properties; Metallography
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11383/7581
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