Tuberculosis (TB) is currently the leading cause of death from a curable infectious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 8.9 million new TB cases occurred in 2004 (of which 3.9 million were sputum smear positive), although only about half of the estimated number were reported by public health systems. Whilst the highest TB incidence rate is in sub-Saharan Africa (estimated to be 356 new cases per 100,000 population per yr), in most countries of the former Soviet Union the estimated incidence rate exceeds 100 new cases per 100,000 population per yr. Although the rate of increase in the TB incidence rate is decreasing, the global TB notification grew by 1% between 2003 and 2004, the last year for which data are available. This continued increase is largely the result of the striking increase in cases in sub-Saharan Africa and, to a lesser extent, in the former USSR. Whilst the worsening of the TB incidence in Africa is due to the HIVepidemic compounded by an insufficient health infrastructure, it is due to different causes in Eastern Europe, including economic decline, increased poverty, social disruption and sub-standard health services. In addition, as a result of these factors, .10% of new TB cases in the Baltic states and in some parts of Russia are multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), i.e. resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. In the European region, 445,000 new TB cases and nearly 70,000 deaths were estimated to have resulted from TB in 2004. In the Eastern part of the region, the levels of directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy coverage and case detection are the lowest among the world regions, and the overall treatment success rate is the second lowest (75%) after Africa.

Improving the TB case management: The International Standards for Tuberculosis Care.

SPANEVELLO, ANTONIO;
2006

Abstract

Tuberculosis (TB) is currently the leading cause of death from a curable infectious disease. The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that 8.9 million new TB cases occurred in 2004 (of which 3.9 million were sputum smear positive), although only about half of the estimated number were reported by public health systems. Whilst the highest TB incidence rate is in sub-Saharan Africa (estimated to be 356 new cases per 100,000 population per yr), in most countries of the former Soviet Union the estimated incidence rate exceeds 100 new cases per 100,000 population per yr. Although the rate of increase in the TB incidence rate is decreasing, the global TB notification grew by 1% between 2003 and 2004, the last year for which data are available. This continued increase is largely the result of the striking increase in cases in sub-Saharan Africa and, to a lesser extent, in the former USSR. Whilst the worsening of the TB incidence in Africa is due to the HIVepidemic compounded by an insufficient health infrastructure, it is due to different causes in Eastern Europe, including economic decline, increased poverty, social disruption and sub-standard health services. In addition, as a result of these factors, .10% of new TB cases in the Baltic states and in some parts of Russia are multidrug-resistant (MDR-TB), i.e. resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampicin. In the European region, 445,000 new TB cases and nearly 70,000 deaths were estimated to have resulted from TB in 2004. In the Eastern part of the region, the levels of directly observed treatment, short-course (DOTS) strategy coverage and case detection are the lowest among the world regions, and the overall treatment success rate is the second lowest (75%) after Africa.
Migliori, Gb; Hopewell, Pc; Blasi, F; Spanevello, Antonio; Raviglione, Mc
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/9242
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