G-quadruplexes embedded within promoters play a crucial role in regulating the gene expression. KIT is a widely studied oncogene, whose promoter contains three G-quadruplex forming sequences, c-kit1, c-kit2 and c-kit∗. For these sequences available studies cover ensemble and single-molecule analyses, although for kit∗ the latter were limited to a study on a promoter domain comprising all of them. Recently, c-kit2 has been reported to fold according to a multi-step process involving folding intermediates. Here, by exploiting fluorescence resonance energy transfer, both in ensemble and at the single molecule level, we investigated the folding of expressly designed constructs in which, alike in the physiological context, either c-kit2 or c-kit∗ are flanked by double stranded DNA segments. To assess whether the presence of flanking ends at the borders of the G-quadruplex affects the folding, we studied under the same protocols oligonucleotides corresponding to the minimal G-quadruplex forming sequences. Data suggest that addition of flanking ends results in biasing both the final equilibrium state and the folding kinetics. A previously unconsidered aspect is thereby unravelled, which ought to be taken into account to achieve a deeper insight of the complex relationships underlying the fine tuning of the gene-regulatory properties of these fascinating DNA structures.

Double-stranded flanking ends affect the folding kinetics and conformational equilibrium of G-quadruplexes forming sequences within the promoter of KIT oncogene

Vesco G.;Lamperti M.;Salerno D.;Bondani M.;Nardo L.
2021

Abstract

G-quadruplexes embedded within promoters play a crucial role in regulating the gene expression. KIT is a widely studied oncogene, whose promoter contains three G-quadruplex forming sequences, c-kit1, c-kit2 and c-kit∗. For these sequences available studies cover ensemble and single-molecule analyses, although for kit∗ the latter were limited to a study on a promoter domain comprising all of them. Recently, c-kit2 has been reported to fold according to a multi-step process involving folding intermediates. Here, by exploiting fluorescence resonance energy transfer, both in ensemble and at the single molecule level, we investigated the folding of expressly designed constructs in which, alike in the physiological context, either c-kit2 or c-kit∗ are flanked by double stranded DNA segments. To assess whether the presence of flanking ends at the borders of the G-quadruplex affects the folding, we studied under the same protocols oligonucleotides corresponding to the minimal G-quadruplex forming sequences. Data suggest that addition of flanking ends results in biasing both the final equilibrium state and the folding kinetics. A previously unconsidered aspect is thereby unravelled, which ought to be taken into account to achieve a deeper insight of the complex relationships underlying the fine tuning of the gene-regulatory properties of these fascinating DNA structures.
Base Sequence; DNA; Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer; Kinetics; Oligonucleotides; Potassium Chloride; Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit; G-Quadruplexes; Promoter Regions, Genetic
Vesco, G.; Lamperti, M.; Salerno, D.; Marrano, C. A.; Cassina, V.; Rigo, R.; Buglione, E.; Bondani, M.; Nicoletto, G.; Mantegazza, F.; Sissi, C.; Nardo, L.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: http://hdl.handle.net/11383/2125153
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