In this work, we focus on a fractional differential equation in Riesz form discretized by a polynomial B-spline collocation method. For an arbitrary polynomial degree p$$ p $$, we show that the resulting coefficient matrices possess a Toeplitz-like structure. We investigate their spectral properties via their symbol and we prove that, like for second order differential problems, the given matrices are ill-conditioned both in the low and high frequencies for large p$$ p $$. More precisely, in the fractional scenario the symbol vanishes at 0 with order alpha$$ \alpha $$, the fractional derivative order that ranges from 1 to 2, and it decays exponentially to zero at pi$$ \pi $$ for increasing p$$ p $$ at a rate that becomes faster as alpha$$ \alpha $$ approaches 1. This translates into a mitigated conditioning in the low frequencies and into a deterioration in the high frequencies when compared to second order problems. Furthermore, the derivation of the symbol reveals another similarity of our problem with a classical diffusion problem. Since the entries of the coefficient matrices are defined as evaluations of fractional derivatives of the B-spline basis at the collocation points, we are able to express the central entries of the coefficient matrix as inner products of two fractional derivatives of cardinal B-splines. Finally, we perform a numerical study of the approximation behavior of polynomial B-spline collocation. This study suggests that, in line with nonfractional diffusion problems, the approximation order for smooth solutions in the fractional case is p+2-alpha$$ p+2-\alpha $$ for even p$$ p $$, and p+1-alpha$$ p+1-\alpha $$ for odd p$$ p $$.

On the matrices in B-spline collocation methods for Riesz fractional equations and their spectral properties

Mazza M.
;
Donatelli M.;
2022

Abstract

In this work, we focus on a fractional differential equation in Riesz form discretized by a polynomial B-spline collocation method. For an arbitrary polynomial degree p$$ p $$, we show that the resulting coefficient matrices possess a Toeplitz-like structure. We investigate their spectral properties via their symbol and we prove that, like for second order differential problems, the given matrices are ill-conditioned both in the low and high frequencies for large p$$ p $$. More precisely, in the fractional scenario the symbol vanishes at 0 with order alpha$$ \alpha $$, the fractional derivative order that ranges from 1 to 2, and it decays exponentially to zero at pi$$ \pi $$ for increasing p$$ p $$ at a rate that becomes faster as alpha$$ \alpha $$ approaches 1. This translates into a mitigated conditioning in the low frequencies and into a deterioration in the high frequencies when compared to second order problems. Furthermore, the derivation of the symbol reveals another similarity of our problem with a classical diffusion problem. Since the entries of the coefficient matrices are defined as evaluations of fractional derivatives of the B-spline basis at the collocation points, we are able to express the central entries of the coefficient matrix as inner products of two fractional derivatives of cardinal B-splines. Finally, we perform a numerical study of the approximation behavior of polynomial B-spline collocation. This study suggests that, in line with nonfractional diffusion problems, the approximation order for smooth solutions in the fractional case is p+2-alpha$$ p+2-\alpha $$ for even p$$ p $$, and p+1-alpha$$ p+1-\alpha $$ for odd p$$ p $$.
https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/nla.2462
B-spline collocation; fractional operators; isogeometric analysis; spectral distribution; Toeplitz matrices
Mazza, M.; Donatelli, M.; Manni, C.; Speleers, H.
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2142132
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