Astrocytes are essential players in development and functions, being particularly relevant as regulators of brain energy metabolism, ionic homeostasis and synaptic transmission. They are also the major source of l-serine in the brain, which is synthesized from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate through the phosphorylated pathway. l-Serine is the precursor of the two main co-agonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, glycine and d-serine. Strikingly, dysfunctions in both l- and d-serine metabolism are associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here, we exploited a differentiation protocol, based on the generation of human mature astrocytes from neural stem cells, and investigated the modification of the proteomic and metabolomic profile during the differentiation process. We show that differentiated astrocytes are more similar to mature rather than to reactive ones, and that axogenesis and pyrimidine metabolism increase up to 30 days along with the folate cycle and sphingolipid metabolism. Consistent with the proliferation and cellular maturation processes that are taking place, also the intracellular levels of l-serine, glycine, threonine, l- and d-aspartate (which level is unexpectedly higher than that of d-serine) show the same biosynthetic time course. A significant utilization of l-serine from the medium is apparent while glycine is first consumed and then released with a peak at 30 days, parallel to its intracellular level. These results underline how metabolism changes during astrocyte differentiation, highlight that d-serine synthesis is restricted in differentiated astrocytes and provide a valuable model for developing potential novel therapeutic approaches to address brain diseases, especially the ones related to serine metabolism alterations.

Serine metabolism during differentiation of human iPSC‐derived astrocytes

Motta, Zoraide;Murtas, Giulia;Rabattoni, Valentina;Sacchi, Silvia;Coccetti, Paola
;
Pollegioni, Loredano
2023-01-01

Abstract

Astrocytes are essential players in development and functions, being particularly relevant as regulators of brain energy metabolism, ionic homeostasis and synaptic transmission. They are also the major source of l-serine in the brain, which is synthesized from the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate through the phosphorylated pathway. l-Serine is the precursor of the two main co-agonists of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor, glycine and d-serine. Strikingly, dysfunctions in both l- and d-serine metabolism are associated with neurological and psychiatric disorders. Here, we exploited a differentiation protocol, based on the generation of human mature astrocytes from neural stem cells, and investigated the modification of the proteomic and metabolomic profile during the differentiation process. We show that differentiated astrocytes are more similar to mature rather than to reactive ones, and that axogenesis and pyrimidine metabolism increase up to 30 days along with the folate cycle and sphingolipid metabolism. Consistent with the proliferation and cellular maturation processes that are taking place, also the intracellular levels of l-serine, glycine, threonine, l- and d-aspartate (which level is unexpectedly higher than that of d-serine) show the same biosynthetic time course. A significant utilization of l-serine from the medium is apparent while glycine is first consumed and then released with a peak at 30 days, parallel to its intracellular level. These results underline how metabolism changes during astrocyte differentiation, highlight that d-serine synthesis is restricted in differentiated astrocytes and provide a valuable model for developing potential novel therapeutic approaches to address brain diseases, especially the ones related to serine metabolism alterations.
2023
2023
D-serine; amino acid metabolism; metabolomics; neurotransmission; proteomics
Tripodi, Farida; Motta, Zoraide; Murtas, Giulia; Rabattoni, Valentina; Nonnis, Simona; Grassi Scalvini, Francesca; Rinaldi, Anna Maria; Rizzi, Roberto; Bearzi, Claudia; Badone, Beatrice; Sacchi, Silvia; Tedeschi, Gabriella; Maffioli, Elisa; Coccetti, Paola; Pollegioni, Loredano
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2167937
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