Objectives: Little is known regarding outcomes and optimal therapeutic regimens of infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam (CZA) and susceptible to meropenem (MEM). Although susceptible to MEM in vitro, the possibility of developing MEM resistance overtime is a concern. We describe the clinical characteristics of patients with colonization/infection due to KPC variants with a focus on the in vitro activity of fosfomycin (FOS)-containing combinations. Methods: Patients with colonization/infection due to a KPC variant were included. Fosfomycin susceptibility was performed by agar dilution method. Synergistic activity of FOS-based combinations was evaluated by gradient strip-agar diffusion method. The emergence of in vitro MEM resistance was also tested. Results: Eleven patients were included: eight with infection [four with ventilator-associated pneumonia and four with bloodstream infections] and three with colonization. Previous therapy with CZA was administered to all patients (with a mean cumulative duration of 23 days). All subjects with infection received meropenem, in monotherapy (n = 4) or with amikacin (n = 2) or fosfomycin (n = 2), and achieved clinical cure. A new CZA-susceptible and MEM-resistant KPC-Kp strain was subsequently isolated in three patients (27.3%). Meropenem/vaborbactam (MVB) showed high in vitro activity, while FOS+MEM combination was synergistic in 40% of cases. In vitro resistance to MEM was observed with maintenance of CZA resistance. Conclusions: Detection of KPC variants may occur within the same patient, especially if CZA has been previously administered. Although clinical success has been obtained with carbapenems, the emergence of MEM resistance is a concern. Fosfomycin plus meropenem is synergistic and may be a valuable combination option for KPC variants, while MVB may be considered in monotherapy. The detection of KPC variants in an endemic setting for KPC-Kp represents a worryingly emerging condition. The optimal therapeutic approach is still unknown and the development of meropenem resistance is of concern, which may lead to therapeutic failure in clinical practice. In these cases, the addition of fosfomycin to meropenem, or a more potent antibiotic, such as meropenem/vaborbactam, may be valuable therapeutic options.

Ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant meropenem-susceptible KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae: Analysis of cases and evaluation of in vitro activity of fosfomycin-containing combinations

Arcari, G;
2023-01-01

Abstract

Objectives: Little is known regarding outcomes and optimal therapeutic regimens of infections caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae (KPC-Kp) resistant to ceftazidime/avibactam (CZA) and susceptible to meropenem (MEM). Although susceptible to MEM in vitro, the possibility of developing MEM resistance overtime is a concern. We describe the clinical characteristics of patients with colonization/infection due to KPC variants with a focus on the in vitro activity of fosfomycin (FOS)-containing combinations. Methods: Patients with colonization/infection due to a KPC variant were included. Fosfomycin susceptibility was performed by agar dilution method. Synergistic activity of FOS-based combinations was evaluated by gradient strip-agar diffusion method. The emergence of in vitro MEM resistance was also tested. Results: Eleven patients were included: eight with infection [four with ventilator-associated pneumonia and four with bloodstream infections] and three with colonization. Previous therapy with CZA was administered to all patients (with a mean cumulative duration of 23 days). All subjects with infection received meropenem, in monotherapy (n = 4) or with amikacin (n = 2) or fosfomycin (n = 2), and achieved clinical cure. A new CZA-susceptible and MEM-resistant KPC-Kp strain was subsequently isolated in three patients (27.3%). Meropenem/vaborbactam (MVB) showed high in vitro activity, while FOS+MEM combination was synergistic in 40% of cases. In vitro resistance to MEM was observed with maintenance of CZA resistance. Conclusions: Detection of KPC variants may occur within the same patient, especially if CZA has been previously administered. Although clinical success has been obtained with carbapenems, the emergence of MEM resistance is a concern. Fosfomycin plus meropenem is synergistic and may be a valuable combination option for KPC variants, while MVB may be considered in monotherapy. The detection of KPC variants in an endemic setting for KPC-Kp represents a worryingly emerging condition. The optimal therapeutic approach is still unknown and the development of meropenem resistance is of concern, which may lead to therapeutic failure in clinical practice. In these cases, the addition of fosfomycin to meropenem, or a more potent antibiotic, such as meropenem/vaborbactam, may be valuable therapeutic options.
2023
2023
Carbapenems; Ceftazidime/avibactam-resistant meropenem-susceptible KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae KPC-variant; Fosfomycin; Meropenem/vaborbactam; Synergism
Oliva, A; Al Ismail, D; Arcari, G; Miele, M C; Casali, E; Sacco, F; Volpicelli, L; De Angelis, M; Mascellino, M T; Cancelli, F; Raponi, G; Carattoli, A; Venditti, M
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Utilizza questo identificativo per citare o creare un link a questo documento: https://hdl.handle.net/11383/2170455
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